SAC Publication Digest
January to June, 2017
The SAC Publication Digest is a comprehensive collection of abstracts of state Statistical Analysis Center (SAC) reports, including reports produced for the SACs by outside authors or organizations. The Digest briefly describes the research, data collection, evaluation, and analysis projects and programs of each SAC during this period, and covers a wide array of justice topics and analysis approaches not available from any other source. The Digest is a resource for anyone concerned with understanding the current major justice issues as well as the administration of justice in the states.
The SACs are units or agencies at the state government level that collect and analyze information from all components of the justice system to contribute to the development of sound public policies and assess their impact. The Justice Research and Statistics Association, whose core members are the SACs, prepared this Digest.
Administrative and Strategic Planning
Created in 1983, the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority is a state agency dedicated to improving the administration of criminal justice. The Authority brings together key leaders from the justice system and the public to identify critical issues faced by the criminal justice system in Illinois, and to propose and evaluate policies, programs, and legislation that address those issues. The agency also works to ensure the criminal justice system in Illinois is efficient and effective. This report details the Authority's work in Illinois criminal justice policy and planning, grants administration, research, and information systems development during the 2016 fiscal year.
The Iowa Collaboration for Youth Development (ICYD) oversees the activities of the State of Iowa Youth Advisory Council (SIYAC) and has sought input from these youth leaders in the development of more effective policies, practices, programs, and this Annual Report. SIYAC is made up of youth between 14 to 21 years of age who reside in Iowa. The purpose of the SIYAC is to foster communication with the governor, general assembly, and state and local policymakers regarding programs, policies, and practices affecting youth and families; and to advocate on important issues affecting youth. The 2017 Annual Report includes our primary issue and goal, data that demonstrate the state's current position, activities and accomplishments in the area of youth development completed by the ICYD Council in 2016; emerging activities being implemented in 2016; and recommended actions that will help Iowa achieve the ICYD goal – Increasing Iowa's Graduation Rate to 95% by 2020.
Juvenile Justice System Planning Data Statewide Report
This report provides key juvenile justice system planning data. Some of these data are similar to those provided in Iowa's 2015 Juvenile Justice System Planning Data Report and the Recommendations and Action Plan for Reducing Disproportionate Minority Contacts. Where possible, we have included national comparison data from the 2014 Juvenile Court Statistics report. The data and related descriptions are provided to assist state and local officials with policy and practice decisions. Included in the report are population, school enrollment, law enforcement data, select Juvenile Court Services (JCS), detention hold information, and DMC matrices.
This report details the work of the New York State Missing Persons Clearinghouse which is located within the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS). The Clearinghouse maintains a statewide electronic central registry of missing persons that is compatible with the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) register for missing persons. Clearinghouse staff also provide support and training to law enforcement and assistance to left-behind family members. The number of children under the age of 18 reported missing in New York State decreased 2.6 percent in 2016, with 18,417 reported. The decrease was attributable to fewer cases reported by law enforcement in New York City (-6.7 percent). A total of 1,329 vulnerable adults were reported missing in New York State in 2016, about a 1 percent decrease from 2015 (1,342).
This legislatively mandated report presents forecasts for the Colorado adult prison and parole populations and for the Colorado juvenile commitment, detention and parole populations based on population trends as of December, 2016. The adult prison and parole forecasts estimate the size of these populations across the upcoming seven years. Also included are estimates regarding average length of stay for future populations, which are used to calculate cost savings resulting from proposed legislation and policy changes. The juvenile commitment, detention and parole forecasts estimate the average daily populations over the upcoming five years.
Analysis of Colorado State Board of Parole Decisions: FY 2016 Report
The Colorado State Board of Parole is mandated to work with the Division of Criminal Justice (DCJ) in the Colorado Department of Public Safety (CDPS) and the Colorado Department of Corrections (CDOC) "to develop and implement a process to collect and analyze data related to the basis for and the outcomes of the Board's parole decisions." Additionally, in consultation with the Board, DCJ is mandated to develop an administrative release guideline instrument for use by the Board in evaluating applications for parole. Finally, the Board and DCJ are mandated to issue a report to the General Assembly regarding the outcomes of decisions by the Board.
Where data are available, this report describes findings and progress on these mandates during the period from July 1, 2015 through June 30, 2016. This report presents findings on all hearing decisions involving a discretionary release or deferral and, where applicable, on the Board's agreement with or acknowledgment of the PBRGI recommendation for these hearings. The report also addresses progress on all statutory mandates related to the Board's decision systems.
Each February, the Criminal Justice Policy & Planning Division at OPM produces a forecast of the state's prison population for the coming year. In recent years, the forecast has relied on 1) an analysis of prison-population trend data 2) the use of an input-output model to track operational flows and rates of change in the size and composition of the prison population, and 3) assessments of the impact of proposed legislative and policy changes. This information is used to project how the prison population would trend under normal operating conditions.
In 2016, OPM predicted that the prison population would decline moderately over the course of the year. Within a few short months of its publication, however, OPM realized that new forces were at play in the prison system, pushing down the inmate population much quicker than had been anticipated. By May 2016, the forecast was off by 181 prisoners. By September, OPM's estimate was 600 prisoners above the actual count.
This report provides an overview of state and local correctional facilities and programs. It includes separate sections for state facilities and programs and parish facilities and programs. It also includes sections for community corrections and Louisiana's Prisoner Reentry Initiative (LA-PRI). There are 9 state correctional facilities operating in Louisiana with an operational capacity of 19,004 beds. In 2016, the Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections was responsible for an average monthly population of 36,225 inmates. In 2016, local-level (parish) jails housed approximately 50% of state offenders. While state correctional facilities have historically offered a variety of educational, vocational and other programming to offenders, offenders housed in local facilities rarely received the same level of programming. This is problematic for successful reentry, as state offenders housed in local jails account for approximately 75% of releases each year.
This report summarizes the findings from an analysis of 2016 census data obtained from the Cumberland and Aroostook County jails. This analysis was performed by the Maine Statistical Analysis Center (SAC) located at the University of Southern Maine’s Muskie School of Public Service at the request of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) of Maine with the objective of learning who is in jail, why they are there (awaiting trial or serving a sentence), and how long they stay. This report is based on jail census data obtained from Cumberland and Aroostook Counties; these data included records from everyone admitted to the jails within the 2016 calendar year.
"Fill the Gap" funds are used in Arizona to fund prosecutor and defense agencies in order to reduce case processing times in each county and statewide. In 1999, the Arizona Criminal Justice Commission (ACJC) was assigned the responsibility of distributing state FTG funds to the county attorneys and indigent defense agencies across the state. This report addresses ACJC's statutory mandate to report on the FTG funds distributed by ACJC. The report provides an explanation of the FTG program including statutory authority, the appropriation formulas, and designated current and prior fund recipients. The report also presents funding balances, allocations, and expenditures by organization, case processing data and information, and recommendations from the ACJC on how to improve the state FTG program.
The purpose of this study is to provide information about pretrial detention and case processing to counties outside of Bernalillo. One aspect of this study is to explore case processing and performance measures that are more robust than those currently used. Second, this study seeks to further understand the extent of pretrial detention and the factors that are associated with pretrial detention. Third, we wanted to determine whether pretrial decision-making appears to be accurate. Finally, this study explores whether pretrial detention influences case processing and outcomes. Specifically, we examine whether pretrial detention is associated with adjudication, time to adjudication, and conviction. We seek to determine how pretrial detention is associated with case processing times and case outcomes independently, and in conjunction with legal and extralegal factors. Executive Summary
This report breaks down Alabama drug-related crime statistics for calendar year 2016 by arrests for sale/possession of illegal drugs by adults/juveniles by county; by adult arrests for sale by county and drug type; adult arrests for possession by county and drug type; by juvenile arrests for sale by country and drug type; and by juvenile arrests for possession by county and drug type.
Crime in Alabama 2016
Crime in Alabama 2016 represents a summary of the nature and extent of the crimes reported by local criminal justice agencies to the Alabama Criminal Justice Information Center’s (ACJIC) Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program. State law mandates that all crimes are reported from state, county, and local law enforcement agencies, and the statistics presented in this report are compiled from these reports. The report concentrates on the more serious crimes reported, Part I crimes, but also includes an overview of less serious offenses (Part II crimes) as well as statistics regarding arrests and recovered property. Geographic areas covered in this report include the State of Alabama, county and city strata.
Domestic Violence in Alabama 2016
Of the 25,188 violent offenses reported in 2016, 18 percent were domestic violence incidents. Domestic violence was indicated in 4,611 offenses reported: in 43 homicides; 238 rapes; 95 robberies; and in 4,235 aggravated assaults. 2,390 incidents of domestic violence were cleared for a 56 percent clearance rate. 50 percent of the clearances were exceptional, i.e. lack of prosecution. The report also provides information on victim/offender relationship, gender of victims/offenders, use of weapons, percentage of victims injured, and location of incidents. Offenses are broken down by county in a three-page companion report, 2016 Alabama Domestic Violence Offenses by County.
Juvenile Victims of Violent Crime in Alabama 2016
Of the 25,188 violent offenses (excluding simple assaults) reported in 2016, 9 percent of the victims were juveniles. There were 2,344 juvenile victims: 24 juvenile homicide victims; 818 juvenile rape victims; 196 juvenile robbery victims; and 1,306 juvenile victims of aggravated assault. There were 6,742 juvenile victims of simple assault, representing 8 percent of all victims of simple assaults reported in 2016. 44 percent of the victims were males, and 56 percent were females. 49 percent of the victims were black, and 51 percent were white.
This Fact Sheet presents data from the Alaska Department of Public Safety's annual report Crime in Alaska for the years 1986 through 2015 on property crime in Alaska. Crime in Alaska represents the State of Alaska's contribution to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's national Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) program. The UCR program collects data from law enforcement agencies across the United States. This fact sheet explores the 30-year trend of property crime rates in Alaska. Overall, the thirty-year trend reveals that the property crime rate in Alaska decreased over the period as the overall crime rate decreased.
Violent Crime Reported in Alaska, 1986-2015
This Fact Sheet presents data from the Alaska Department of Public Safety's annual report Crime in Alaska for the years 1986 through 2015 on violent crime in Alaska. Crime in Alaska represents the State of Alaska's contribution to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's national Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) program. The UCR program collects data from law enforcement agencies across the United States. This fact sheet explores the 30-year trend of violent crime rates in Alaska. Overall, the thirty-year trend reveals that the violent crime rate in Alaska increased over the period despite decreases in the overall crime rate.
This data brief examines the reported property index offense rates for both Arizona and the United States. This analysis revealed a decreased from calendar years (CY) 2014 to CY2015 by 5.1 percent and 4.2 percent, respectively. The Arizona property index offense rate decreased to a low of 3,033.2 offenses per 100,000 residents in CY2015. Similarly, the U.S. rate has decreased to a low of 2,487.0 in CY2015. Over the past ten years, both the state and the national property index offense rates decreased (see Chart 1). While both rates dropped, Arizona's fell at a greater rate than throughout the U.S. Despite the noticeable decrease within the state, the Arizona property crime rate continued to be higher than the U.S. rate overall.
ACJC Data Brief: Arizona Violent Crime Trends, CY2006-2015
This data brief examines the crime rate trends for the four violent index offenses in Arizona and the nation. The data used in this brief were submitted to the UCR program by local, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies and published by the FBI in the annual Crime in the United States report (September 2016). This analysis shows that the violent index offense rates for both Arizona and the United States decreased overall from CY2006 to 2015. Both the Arizona and U.S. violent crime rates increased from CY2014 to CY2015. With the exception of CY2008 and CY2009, the Arizona violent index offense rate was higher than the national rate.
In Arkansas, crime statistics are submitted by law enforcement agencies using the incident base reporting method within the Arkansas Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. While this information comes from law enforcement and includes the number of arrests and incidents known and reported by law enforcement agencies, it does not include any data relating to prosecution, adjudication or corrections. Likewise, it does not attempt to draw any conclusions about the cause of crime. Throughout the year the Statistical Analysis Center (SAC) within ACIC publishes a number of statistical reports, including the annual Arkansas Crime Statistics.
The crime statistics are based on data reported to the Arkansas Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program by law enforcement agencies. As of 2009 all law enforcement agencies report using the NIBRS National Incident Base Reporting System Format. Prior to 2009 all law enforcement agencies reported using either the NIBRS or Summary Format.
The statutorily mandated Monthly Indicators Report collects and publishes data from a variety of state criminal justice agencies. The primary goals of of the Report are to monitor trends in prison admissions and releases and to provide policy makers and the public with a current look at the state's prison system and its prisoners.
Hawaii Revised Statutes require the Department of the Attorney General to develop, direct, and report annually on a statewide hate crime statistics reporting program. With input and assistance from Hawaii's county prosecuting attorneys and police departments, the state program was launched on January 1, 2002. This fifteenth annual report covers hate crime cases that reached a final disposition during Calendar Year 2016. Three cases were reported to the program for this time period; details appear on page 3. Fifteen-year summary statistics are also included.
This publication provides the most current certified information available regarding the number of offenses reported and arrests by Louisiana law enforcement agencies. The information is designed to increase public awareness and understanding of such issues that impact the law enforcement and criminal justice agencies in Louisiana. There were 183,097 index offenses in 2015, a 1.64% decrease compared to 2014. The crime rate of Louisiana is 3893.4 offenses per 100,000 people, a 2.25% decrease compared to 2014.
New York State and the FBI use seven Index crime categories as indicators of overall crime trends: murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, which are classified as violent crimes; and the property crimes of burglary, larceny and motor vehicle theft. This report includes preliminary data on Index crime in New York State, its 62 counties and two regions - New York City and the 57 counties outside of the five boroughs - for 2016. Police departments and sheriffs' offices report Index crime to the Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) through the Uniform Crime Reporting and Incident Based Reporting programs. This report also details Index crime rates per 100,000 population statewide and by county and region. DCJS uses county population data from the FBI, which is based on U.S. Census estimates, to calculate those crime rates.
Environmental Conservation Law Offenses: Hazardous Waste and Waste Disposal 2016 Annual Report
New York law requires the Division of Criminal Justice Services to report on the number of persons charged with offenses violating Articles 27, 37 and 40, and Titles 27 and 37 of Article 71 of the Environmental Conservation Law (ECL) regarding hazardous waste and waste disposal. These laws concern the collection, treatment, disposal of refuse or other solid waste, and the regulation of substances characterized as hazardous or acutely hazardous to the public health, safety, or to the environment. This annual report provides information about the numbers of persons arrested for ECL offenses from 2012 to 2016. The arrests counts are derived from information about fingerprintable adult arrests transmitted by law enforcement agencies to the DCJS Computerized Criminal History (CCH) system and are based on the most serious charge in the arrest event. Because CCH is a fingerprint-based database, prosecutions of corporations or other entities are not identified.
Felony Insurance Fraud Offenses 2016 Annual Report
Executive Law §846-a requires the Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) to report on the processing and disposition of Penal Law Article 176 (Insurance Fraud) felony offenses. This report complies with that reporting requirement and provides processing information for the years 2012 to 2016. It includes information about the number of persons arrested for felony insurance fraud offenses, the number of defendants prosecuted in superior court where the top charge in the indictment or superior court information was an insurance fraud felony offense, and the dispositions of arrests for felony insurance fraud offenses
This report provides information about crimes occurring in major Ohio cities during the fourth quarter (October 1st – December 31st) of 2016. The cities included in this report are Akron, Canton, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Toledo and Youngstown. Data for this report are taken from the Ohio Incident-Based Reporting System (OIBRS). OIBRS is a voluntary crime reporting program that allows Ohio law enforcement agencies to electronically submit crime statistics to state and federal government agencies. The data included in this report consist of the seven most severe categories of offenses collected by the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. These offenses are known as Part 1 crimes, and are divided in to two categories: violent crimes (murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) and property crimes (burglary, larceny/theft, motor vehicle theft.)
These one-page briefs present data for the year 2016 on select topics.
Numbers Now: Criminal Justice in Oklahoma
Numbers Now is the newsletter of the Oklahoma Statistical Analysis Center. This issue includes information on Crime In Oklahoma 2016, the Safe Oklahoma Grant: Year 3, Analysis of SIBRS Sexual Assault Data, and Internet Safety.
State Incident-Based Reporting system
These one-page brief provides background information on Oklahoma's State Incident-Based Reporting System (SIBRS).
All Tennessee law enforcement agencies, as well as colleges and universities, are mandated to report crime statistics monthly to the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation. Crime rates in the report reflect all 23 Group A offenses; crime rates in the FBI’s Crime in the United States are only based upon eight Index offenses. The Tennessee Incident Based Reporting System collects information on up to 10 offenses occurring in the same incident. Information is collected on the offense circumstances, victims, offenders, arrestees, and property. There are 23 Group A offense categories with 50 separate offenses. Group B offenses such as DUI, drunkenness, and bad checks include arrest information only. Following introductory material, data are presented in tables and graphs.
Crime on Campus 2016
The College and University Security Information Act enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, effective July 1, 1989, requires each institution of higher education to report to the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation data relating to crimes occurring on the campus and in student housing. This report is a statistical summary of crimes reported on campuses of all Tennessee institutions of higher education. The report presents the nature, volume, and extent of reported crime on the campuses and in the housing of Tennessee colleges and universities during calendar year 2016. The report is based on data submitted to the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI) through the Tennessee Incident Based Reporting System (TIBRS) program, which collects data on all crimes occurring in the state.
School Crime 2014- 2016
This annual school crime study presents the nature, volume, and extent of reported crimes on school campuses, excluding colleges and universities in 2016. From 2014 to 2016, a total of 26,828 offenses that included 19,145 victims were reported by Tennessee law enforcement agencies.
Tennessee Hate Crime 2016
This report examines hate crimes reported to the Tennessee Incident Based Reporting System (TIBRS) by Tennessee law enforcement agencies for the year 2016. It uses the minimally accepted designations for race and ethnicity as established by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and published in the Federal Register. The following racial designations are used in the hate crime data collection program: White, African American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Multiple Races. The ethnic designations are Hispanic and Other Ethnicity/National Origin. Agencies were contacted and asked to verify the accuracy of hate crime(s) reported for their jurisdiction. In 2016, 257 individual victims were reported with a known bias motivation in the offense. Simple assault was the most frequently reported bias-motivated offense
The purpose of this analysis is to examine the overall profile of offenders convicted of domestic violence and/or sex abuse in Iowa. Examination of characteristics specific to these offenders helps inform best practices related to treatment by observing the extent to which domestic violence and sex crimes intersect. This research is further informed based upon other national studies with common characteristics for this group of offenders. Specifically, the characterization of these offenders will help to ensure they are receiving the appropriate treatment, further enhancing public safety.
This report examines domestic violence reported to the Tennessee Incident Based Reporting System (TIBRS) by Tennessee law enforcement agencies for the year 2016. A total of 78,100 domestic violence offenses were reported to TIBRS in 2016. Simple assault was, by far, the most frequently reported offense accounting for 66.7% of all domestic violence offenses. Females were three times more likely to be victimized than males; accounting for 71.5% of all domestic violence victims. Domestic violence resulted in 91 murder victims in 2016.
The Safe Oklahoma Grant Program was created to promote the use of evidence-based policing strategies to combat violent crime across Oklahoma. The Oklahoma City Police Department (OCPD) used grant funds to implement proactive policing strategies, nuisance abatement activities, and develop community partnerships. OCPD used data to identify a high crime target area in northwest Oklahoma City. Program staff implemented grant activities according to the original program narrative and adapted their approach to address the needs of the community.
Evaluators with the Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation (OSBI) worked with program staff to evaluate the effectiveness of grant activities within the target area from November 4, 2013, to September 30, 2016. OCPD collected and reported performance measure data to evaluators each month.
This report, devised with the cooperation of professionals from local and state agencies across Arizona, provides a needs assessment to examine how conditions of release are currently processed. The report will also highlight how the conditions of release process may be improved through technology and simplified business processes. The primary purpose of this needs assessment is to identify high-level impediments to sharing pretrial conditions of release as they relate to firearms with the FBI National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). The needs assessment will also identify interest and support among the Arizona criminal justice community to share all conditions of release with other Arizona criminal justice stakeholders.
Hawaii Revised Statutes requires the county police departments to provide to the Department of the Attorney General a monthly report of firearm registration activity. The data from these reports were compiled in order to provide the statistics presented herein for Calendar Year 2016. This is the seventeenth annual publication of Firearm Registrations in Hawaii. A total of 21,408 personal/private firearm permit applications were processed statewide during 2016, marking an 8.4% increase from 19,752 applications processed in 2015. Of the applications processed in 2016, 95.7% were approved and resulted in issued permits; 2.8% were approved but subsequently voided after the applicants failed to return for their permits within the specified time period; and 1.5% were denied due to one or more disqualifying factors.
In February 2016, Washington Gov. Jay Inslee issued Executive Order 16-02 "Firearm Fatality Prevention – A Public Health Approach." This report contains the results of the Office of Financial Management's gap analysis of the firearm background check system, as instructed in the order. The gap analysis searched for traits of the system that have the potential to allow individuals, who would otherwise be prohibited from possessing a firearm, to obtain one through otherwise legitimate means. Agency procedures related to the firearm background check were assessed through a series of interviews during the course of the analysis. Overall, 14 gaps were identified in the firearm background check system that could contribute to a prohibited individual obtaining a firearm directly or to overall system slowdowns. While the general assessment of the system found that most of the background check functioned as intended, the gaps covered in the report are worth consideration when looking to improve the system for law enforcement, dealers, firearm purchasers and public safety.
In 2016, the Arizona Criminal Justice Commission's Statistical Analysis Center conducted a statewide survey of law enforcement agencies to assess gangs and gang activity occurring in their jurisdictions in 2015. The survey used for the Arizona Gang Threat Assessment was based on the National Youth Gang Survey, as well as the National Gang Threat Assessment. This report provides results from the 2015 Gang Threat Assessment and compares it to similar data collected from 2008 to 2014, when available, to illustrate changes over time.
Over the past decade, federal, state, and local law enforcement have increasingly been called upon to identify and investigate human-trafficking offenses. Numerous efforts have been put in place to track incidents, arrests, and criminal offenses related to human trafficking. In response to directives from the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (2008), the FBI added two new crime categories to the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) to capture commercial-sex acts and involuntary servitude. Additionally, state legislatures have begun to require the collection of data on human trafficking offenses identified by criminal-justice officials. However, despite the promises of standardized data from law enforcement about human trafficking, the numbers of reported human-trafficking offenses and arrests have been low. In this article, we examine official counts of human trafficking collected by criminal-justice-system data programs. We draw on data from a survey of state crime-reporting agencies and case studies of human trafficking crime reporting conducted in two U.S. states to explore the challenges that local police agencies face reporting human trafficking. Finally, we offer suggestions for improving officially reported data.
In 2009, Minnesota Statutes section 609.322 Solicitation, Inducement and Promotion of Prostitution was amended to include sex trafficking. Minnesota law focuses on the actions of the trafficker; if he/she received, recruited, enticed, harbored, provided or obtained by any means an individual to aid in prostitution, then sex trafficking has occurred. This law is widely considered more effective than the federal law, which requires a determination that force, fraud or coercion was used to commercially and sexually exploit a person over the age of 18.
This report is the seventh completed under Minnesota Statutes section 299A.785 and the fourth to be completed since the statute was amended to allow for biennial submission. This statute requires a study of the extent and type of trafficking occurring in Minnesota. There is currently no systematic or centralized way to count victims of human trafficking. Therefore, to meet the obligations imposed by legislation, online surveys were completed by service providers (N=89) and law enforcement officers (N=195) across the state. These respondents constitute 45 percent of the service providers surveyed and 46 percent of law enforcement agencies across the state.
The Juvenile Recidivism in Delaware report is completed by the Statistical Analysis Center for the Division of Youth and Rehabilitative Services (YRS) as well as the state of Delaware’s criminal justice community. It is an analysis of youth released in 2010 through 2014 from a YRS Level 5 or Level 4 Secure facility. As required, there were two measures analyzed for this report: re-arrest and re-commitment. Offenses counted as recidivism were limited to state felonies, serious misdemeanors, or violations of probation or parole. Excluded as recidivism events are most state motor vehicle offenses, state criminal offenses classified as violations, and all municipal ordinances.
This study was designed to address the likelihood and extent to which juvenile offenders persist in illegal behavior and penetrate into Georgia’s adult criminal justice system. Data were collected from multiple agencies in a unique effort that produced the first statewide longitudinal dataset of justice-involved persons of all ages. Electronically recorded justice administration data for anyone born before October 1996 were included. In the last-half century, Georgia’s juvenile justice system engaged half a million youths in response to nearly 800,000 referrals for over 1.5 million incidents of delinquency. Those juveniles accrued more than 1.2 million out-of-home placements. Of those half million juveniles, 41% continued to commit crimes into adulthood. In fact, the juveniles went on to account for 2 million adult charges or 7% of all adult arrests in the last 30 years in Georgia.
The general criminal justice response to youth adjudicated delinquent for sex offenses is similar to that used with the adult population. In many jurisdictions, including Illinois, adjudication of a sex crime can trigger sex offender registration requirements for youth, even for lower classes of offenses. Given the consequences of sex offender registration laws, it is important to continually study the number and characteristics of those impacted by these laws, and whether sentences for adults are appropriate for juveniles. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of youth who allegedly commit or are adjudicated delinquent for sex offenses.
This document reflects the collective work of an array of experts in terms of an effective, female-responsive plan for services that is crucial but has not previously existed in Iowa. It is intended to inform decisions by policymakers at the highest levels in Iowa government. It contains recommendations for policy and practices to better meet the needs of girls who are often referred to as “deep end” girls. These girls have accessed all available services in the juvenile justice system, cannot be at home, have committed many crimes, and are at a high risk to offend again. Prior to the closure of the girl's home in Toledo, Iowa, these girls may have been residents of that facility. This report was developed through a planning group initiative, employing the collective and thoughtful work of members that include Iowa judges, attorneys, juvenile court services, youth services providers, youth who were in the juvenile justice system, stakeholders from child welfare and juvenile justice systems, and other subject matter experts who contributed different perspectives from their daily work with these young women.
Since 1919, when the state's juvenile delinquency code was enacted, Maine's justice system has recognized the difference between youth and adults by emphasizing treatment and rehabilitation for young people in the justice system. This approach is supported by a large and growing body of adolescent development and brain science research that finds fundamental, biologically-based differences between youth and adults. If the goal of a separate justice system for youth is to provide the tools and opportunities for young people to change, it is antithetical that the very involvement with the system could create unanticipated, lasting consequences. Unfortunately, studies across the country are finding just that; limited safeguarding of juvenile records stemming from involvement in the juvenile justice system puts individuals at risk of facing collateral consequences, including difficulty obtaining employment and housing or serving in the military.
This report explores the extent to which this issue is occurring in Maine by detailing what statutes say, what practices look like and what the implications are for individuals in Maine with a juvenile record. The goal of this report is to provide policy makers, the public and juvenile justice system practitioners with research about what those closest to the system understand about how records are handled and accessed, the impact of juvenile records and what improvements could be made that are consistent with the rehabilitative and public safety goals of the juvenile justice system in Maine. Executive summary.
This report examines the education and workforce outcomes of youth who were enrolled in eighth grade in a Washington state public school at any point during the 2004–05 academic year and who have had one or more contacts with the juvenile justice system between the years 1989 and 2011. The three cohorts (status offender youth, juvenile offender youth and nonjuvenile justice-involved youth) were then matched to unemployment insurance records to examine earnings during the years 2009 through 2014. The cohorts were followed for seven years (through the 2011–12 academic year) to allow for examination of both high school outcomes and postsecondary enrollment.
The report seeks to answer whether the education and workforce outcomes of Washington state youth who are involved in the juvenile justice system are disproportionate to those youth not involved in the juvenile justice system. Specifically, does involvement in the Washington state juvenile justice system affect high school graduation? Are enrollment rates in a Washington state postsecondary institution lower for those who have been involved in the juvenile justice system than those who have not? Does being involved in the Washington state juvenile justice system affect employment?
In 2012, the Colorado General Assembly passed House Bill 1345, which mandated that local law enforcement agencies and district attorney offices report specific information to the Division of Criminal Justice (DCJ) within the Colorado Department of Public Safety concerning every incident that resulted in a student's arrest, summons or investigation during the 2012-2013 academic year and subsequent years for an offense that occurred on school grounds, in a school vehicle, or at a school activity or event sanctioned by public elementary schools, middle or junior high schools, or high schools. H.B. 12-1345 mandated DCJ to annually analyze and report these data. This report presents the findings for the 2012- 2013 and 2013-2014 academic years.
Officer Involved Shootings in Colorado: 2010-2016
In 2015, the Colorado General Assembly passed Senate Bill 15‐217, which mandated that state and local law enforcement agencies report specific information to the Division of Criminal Justice (DCJ) in the Department of Public Safety in the event that the agency "employs a peace officer who is involved in an officer‐involved shooting that results in a person suspected of criminal activity being shot at by the officer."1 S.B.15‐217 mandated DCJ to analyze and report the data on an annual basis. This second annual report, as specified in S.B. 15‐217, documents findings based on officer involved shootings that occurred during a 6½ year period between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016.
Police administrators across the country are recognizing the need to connect individuals with whom they come into contact in the community to evidence-based treatment to better address the large social and economic burden of substance use disorders (SUD), a chronic and relapsing condition. Police frequently encounter substance using individuals and their families in the community, and often have repeat contacts with individuals suffering from SUD. In response to a growing epidemic of SUD, particularly increases in heroin and opioid use and deaths due to overdose, police personnel, in conjunction with academic researchers, treatment providers, and SUD experts, are actively developing and implementing programs across the country that refer or divert individuals with SUD away from the criminal justice system and toward treatment. This article provides an overview of different police agency responses to individuals with SUD that are intended to prevent overdose deaths and divert individuals with SUD away from the criminal justice system and toward appropriate support and treatment.
There were 496,887 traffic stops reported to the Nebraska Commission on Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (NCC) for 2016 from 198 law enforcement agencies. Of the total traffic stops reported, over 66.6%, or two-thirds, were by the Nebraska State Patrol (NSP) or agencies in Douglas, Lancaster and Sarpy Counties. Overall, 39.2% of the stops made statewide were by NSP. Omaha Police Department (OPD) made 9.5% and Lincoln Police Department (LPD) made 9.5% of the statewide traffic stops.
For 2016 the NCC received a total of three reports from two agencies of the public making allegations of racial profiling. All the agencies involved conducted internal investigations. In the three instances the officer was exonerated or the allegations were deemed unsubstantiated. The data reported does not necessarily provide data to determine motivation or cause for any apparent disproportionality. However, even though this level of data does not allow definite conclusions in those areas, it does serve as a basis for constructive discussions between police and citizens regarding ways to reduce racial bias and/or perceptions of racial bias.
The New York State Law Enforcement Agency Accreditation Program provides executives of eligible police departments and sheriffs’ offices with a mechanism to help ensure that their agencies are operating efficiently and meeting the highest standards of law enforcement professionalism; and formal recognition of the agency for those efforts. Accreditation requires that these agencies develop and implement policies and procedures to comply with the program’s 110 standards: 52 related to agency administration, 46 to operations and 12 to training. The Law Enforcement Agency Accreditation Council (council) is the governing body for the program as established through New York State Executive Law §846-h. The Council develops and approves program standards and adopts policies that determine how the program is administered. It also has the exclusive authority to award accreditation to an agency. This report details the work of the council in 2016.
The Office of Criminal Justice Services provides federal and state grant funds to Ohio’s multi-jurisdictional task forces. Ohio’s multi-jurisdictional task forces generally consist of representatives from local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies and prosecutors. They tend to target mid- to upper-level drug trafficking and organized criminal activity for which it would be difficult for any one jurisdiction to build a case. In this way, they are not duplicative of individual agencies, but are seen as a crucial addition to local law enforcement.
Funding for multi-jurisdictional task forces is available through OCJS from two primary sources—the federal Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) and the state Drug Law Enforcement Fund. Task forces are eligible to apply under both programs. In CY 2016, 29 task forces received Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grants totaling over $1.2 million and 340task forces received Drug Law Enforcement Fund Grants totaling over $5.5 million.
As a requirement of the JAG and DLEF grants, task forces submitted semi-annual reports highlighting their activities and accomplishments during CY 2016. Forty-one task forces submitted reports for the January 2016-June 2016 reporting period, and 39 task forces submitted reports for the July 2016-December 2016 reporting period. This report focuses on street (i.e., non-pharmaceutical) drug activity, pharmaceutical drug diversion, seizures and forfeitures, and other activities.
These one-page briefs present data on law enforcement officers killed or assaulted in the line of duty for the year 2016.
Fatal Officers-Involved Shootings, 2016
The Office of Criminal Justice Statistics collects data on all fatal officer-involved shootings in Oklahoma. For purposes of this report, a fatal officer-involved shooting is defined as the discharge of a service weapon by an officer that results in the death of a civilian. This report includes descriptive data from multiple sources and a summary of events surrounding fatal officer-involved shootings in Oklahoma for 2016. Data sources include media reports, online searches, and Supplementary Homicide Reports from the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) also assists research staff with identifying and collecting information about each death.
This annual report published by the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI) presents information on reported incidents of assaults or deaths of law enforcement officers in the line of duty that occurred in the state. The information is based on crime statistics submitted by law enforcement agencies to TBI’s Tennessee Incident Based Reporting System (TIBRS) program. A total of 218 Tennessee agencies reported a total of 1,392 LEOKA incidents and 1,808 LEOKA victims. The most frequently reported offense was simple assault at 54.8%
Senate Bill 13-250, signed by the governor on May 28, 2013, made extensive revisions to Title 18 C.R.S. concerning definitions and penalties for drug offenses. S.B. 13-250 was the result of nearly four years of work by the Colorado Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice's (CCJJ) Drug Policy Task Force. Specifically, S.B.13-250: created a new sentencing grid for drug offenses, created new qualifying amounts for felony, misdemeanor, and petty offenses, created a new option for drug offenders to avoid a felony conviction, instructed the court to exhaust all remedies before sentencing some drug offenders to the department of corrections, prohibited plea agreements that require defendants to waive their right to petition to have a conviction record sealed, expanded and encouraged treatment options for drug offenders. S.B.13-250 also instructed the Division of Criminal Justice to collect data and issue a report to the legislature on the bill's impact.
To analyze the impact of S.B.13-250, the outcomes of cases filed in the three years prior to the bill's passage were compared with outcomes of cases filed in the three years after the enactment of the bill. The unit of analysis throughout this report is at the case-level, rather than the person-level. Court records were obtained from the Judicial Branch's Integrated Colorado Online Network (ICON) system and drug filings and convictions in district, county, and juvenile court were analyzed. Denver County Court data were not available.
This report describes the Illinois Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Council's efforts to reduce vehicle theft, insurance fraud, and motor vehicle theft related crimes in Illinois. The Illinois Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act requires insurance companies to pay $1 into a special trust fund for each private passenger automobile insured for physical damage coverage. About $6.5 million are annually collected and distributed by the Council. The funds are designated to support law enforcement programs that increase investigation and prosecution of vehicle theft related crimes. Due to the lack of a state budget appropriation, the Council was unable to support programming in 2016, but a variety of theft prevention efforts have been supported with MVTPC funding since the Council's inception in 1992. Funding emphasis had been placed upon law enforcement programs that enhanced investigation and prosecution of vehicle theft-related crimes.
Adult Redeploy Illinois is a state initiative to reduce the number of non-violent offenders going to the Illinois Department of Corrections (IDOC) by providing financial incentives to local jurisdictions to increase community-based supervision and services that are proven to reduce recidivism. This toolkit was designed to improve operation of ARI with a road map to strengthen the capacity and role of community in local programs. This document provides guidance on integrating community when planning or operating diversion programs, both in Illinois and nationally. Snapshots of ARI sites with robust community involvement are presented. Snapshots include program descriptions, challenges related to community involvement and strategies to navigate them, and how community involvement has enhanced programs.
This infographics presents data from a study that examined offenders receiving the state-funded restrictive intermediate punishment (RIP), which includes intensive supervision and probation. Criminal history and characteristics of offenders receiving a sentence of restrictive intermediate punishment (RIP) were matched with offenders receiving a state prison sentence, to understand the impact of diversion on recidivism among nonviolent, medium-risk, substance-dependent offenders in Pennsylvania. The study was based on a simple random sample of 500 offenders beginning their RIP sentence in FY 2010/11 was extracted from the records of the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency (PCCD), the Commonwealth’s criminal justice planning agency tasked with providing state funding to counties in an effort to support and encourage diversion in RIP for eligible offenders. A limitation of this study is that it does not utilize random assignment. It is the opinion of the researcher that random assignment is unachievable for this study due to ethical considerations, as it would be highly unethical for a judge to arbitrarily sentence one person to confinement while another is diverted and remains in the community. As a result, the study instead utilized a quasiexperimental design to more accurately control for potential sentence selection bias, which greatly helped bolster internal validity.
Historically, recidivism in Oregon has been tracked with a single definition: a new felony conviction within three years of release for incarceration or imposition of probation. In 2013, HB 3194 Section 45 (codified in ORS 423.557) provided a new statewide definition of recidivism. The definition includes the arrest, conviction, or incarceration for a new crime. The new definition essentially provides three measures of recidivism, and a richer context for recidivism analysis. The recidivism analysis in this report is the fifth in a series of comprehensive statewide analysis using the definition of adult recidivism in HB 3194 (codified in ORS 423.557). Although there are limitations with the current available data, this analysis includes arrest, misdemeanor and felony conviction, and incarceration data in a single recidivism analysis.
Short Term Transitional Leave Program
In July 2013 the Oregon Legislature passed House Bill 3194, known as the Justice Reinvestment Act. Changes to short-term transitional leave (STTL) are described in Section 13 and 14 of the bill. The bill increases the amount of short-term transitional leave that an inmate may receive from 30 days to 90 days. Inmates who participate in the STTL program show lower 1-year and 2-year recidivism rates than inmates who were statutorily eligible and did not participate. The 1-year conviction and arrest rates are significantly lower for those who participated in the program. The 2-year conviction and incarceration rates are significantly lower for those who participated in the program. This report does not attempt to analyze the reason(s) why a lower recidivism rate is observed among those inmates who are eligible and receive STTL.
Since 1997, state law requires all public schools to conduct school safety audits. The purpose is to assess the safety conditions of schools, identify and develop solutions for physical safety concerns, and identify and evaluate patterns of student safety concerns. Responses and solutions based on the audits include recommendations for structural adjustments, changes in school safety procedures, and revisions to school divisions' student code of conduct. The school and division surveys discussed in this report are one component of the school safety audit program. A total of 1,961 schools participated in the 2015–2016 school safety survey and 132 divisions that responded to the division-level survey. Of the schools, 57% were elementary, 17% were middle, 16% were high schools and 10% were other types of schools.
This annual report is presented in four chapters. A descriptive statistical summary of statewide guideline sentencing practices in FY 2016 is illustrated in Chapter One. Chapter Two describes the types and characteristics of violators incarcerated in the state correctional facilities. In Chapter Three the pure prison and probation sentences imposed under the sentencing guidelines are examined to evaluate conformity to the sentencing guidelines. Chapter Four contains analyses on sentencing trends and prison population projections. Appendix I analyzes sentences from the top four contributing counties of the state. Appendix II tracks trends of selected offenses in the past five years. Admissions and population of female offenders are analyzed in this section as well.
Pursuant to Act 276, the Louisiana Commission on Law Enforcement is tasked with collecting information from criminal justice agencies on all sexually-oriented criminal offenses and sexual assault collections kits in their jurisdictions on an annual basis. This report summarizes findings from the 2016 Sexual Assault Collection Kits and Sexually-Oriented Offenses Data Collection Survey. Surveys were sent to 387 criminal justice agencies including 315 police departments (including university and college police departments), 64 sheriff's offices, 1 coroner's office and 7 crime laboratories. The overall participation rate was 79% with 100% participation from sheriff's office and crime labs and 74% participation from police departments.
State law mandates statistical reporting and test related to sexual offense evidence kits. The law also designates the state Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) as the agency responsible for educating law enforcement agencies about new reporting requirements and collecting statistical data required to be reported by those agencies and forensic laboratories. It also required DCJS to submit to the leadership of the New York State Senate and New York State Assembly by March 1, 2017, a statistical report detailing the results of an initial inventory of kits in possession of police and prosecutorial agencies across New York State. A total of 265 of 586 agencies provided data to DCJS by the deadline. Those agencies reported 1,622 untested sexual offense evidence kits in their possession.
This report documents findings from the Illinois Drug Threat Assessment survey administered by the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (Authority) in 2016. Authority researchers surveyed police chiefs and county sheriffs to gain their perceptions of drug trafficking in their jurisdictions. The study was designed to understand the extent of the drug trafficking including demand, availability, transportation (how it is coming into the state), and distribution (who is bringing it into the state). The information presented details the current drug trafficking trends and issues around the state and is intended to inform criminal justice policy, practice, and research regarding drug trafficking and related concerns.
National and Illinois Youth Substance Use: Risk Factors, Prevalence, and Treatment
Research has shown that during stages of ongoing, yet incomplete, cognitive development youth may be more inclined to take risks and experiment with drugs and alcohol and are often heavily influenced by their peers, leading to negative outcomes. Nationally and in Illinois, traditionally high drug use categories of marijuana and alcohol appear to be stable or falling and youth use of other drugs remains relatively low. This article examines the scope of the youth substance abuse problem and provides an overview of current issues and trends in youth substance use. Authority researchers used data on youth substance use from national and state data sources to help inform on youth substance use. Additionally, they identified some best practices to utilize in prevention and intervention efforts.
Reducing Substance Use Disorders and Related Offending: A Continuum of Evidence-Informed Practices in the Criminal Justice System
Today, substance use disorders (SUDs) and substance misuse and abuse are considered a public health issue, as well as a criminal justice concern. Over the past several decades, research and rigorous evaluation has provided insight on effective practices for individuals with SUDs and other substance use issues and the importance of treatment over criminal justice system involvement. Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA) researchers developed a continuum to share evidence-informed practices for addressing SUDs and substance misuse to guide local-level assessment, planning, and implementation efforts around SUD prevention and intervention. These practices range from early prevention to services to support successful reintegration back into the community following time spent in jail or prison. Communities are encouraged to use this continuum to examine the gaps and needs that exist in their areas and explore the options available to address those gaps.
Study of Self-Reported Prescription Drug Use Among a Sample of Illinois Prisoners
In April 2016, Illinois Criminal Justice Authority (Authority) researchers, in collaboration with WestCare Illinois, administered a paper survey to 573 males residing in two Illinois correctional facilities receiving substance abuse treatment: Sheridan Correctional Center and Adult Transition Center-Crossroads. The survey collected information on demographics, prescription drug availability, prevalence/use, effects, and treatment. The survey documented prevalence, availability, motivation, and method of use of prescription drugs among incarcerated individuals. Of the 573 inmates surveyed, 46 percent reported using prescription drugs to get high at some point in their lives prior to incarceration.
Study of Self-Reported Synthetic Drug Use Among a Sample of Illinois Prisoners
Synthetic drug use is a growing public health concern. Synthetics are often cheaper and more readily available than cannabis and amphetamines, making them attractive alternatives to other illicit drugs. In addition, the chemical formulas for these drugs are constantly changing, making them difficult to regulate, and their detection is limited in commonly used drug screenings. Authority researchers partnered with WestCare Foundation to survey 573 state prisoners on synthetic drug use to examine prevalence, accessibility, motivation for use, and effects. Thirty-six percent of respondents reported any synthetic drug use in the 12-months prior to incarceration. Findings suggested a proportion of the criminal justice population engages in synthetic drug use and the findings were consistent with other research on synthetic drug use.
The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority's (ICJIA) Ad Hoc Victim Services Committee (Committee) convenes every three years to define priorities for use of S.T.O.P. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) and Victim of Crime Act (VOCA) funds. The criminal justice, juvenile justice, victim services professionals, and victim advocates who comprise the Committee review crime and victimization trend data, information on current efforts, and data from funded programs to ensure a minimum provision of basic services to victims of crime and prioritize funding. To assist the Committee, ICJIA researchers conducted a study to identify crime victim needs and service gaps and measure the existing capacity of Illinois victim service providers. The study focused on crime victimization throughout the state, including a wide range of crime types and victim service practices. This report synthesizes the information collected, literature reviewed, and data analyzed, and provides a set of recommendations based on the research findings. The recommendations provided in this report are limited to what may be funded through VOCA and VAWA. A complete set of findings that includes a broader discussion about victim needs and services that cannot be addressed by VOCA or VAWA will be made available to the public in early 2017.
2016 Victim Needs Assessment
This study provides an initial benchmark on the proportion of people in Illinois who are affected by violent crime and what needs result from their victimization. This research also explores how victims' needs are met by victim services providers in Illinois and where gaps in service delivery currently exist. By periodically repeating this data collection, the State of Illinois will be able to strategically allocate resources to meet victims' needs and understand how victims' needs are met through law enforcement, legal system, health care, trauma and grief counseling, housing, and other types of support services.
This issue of the Office of Criminal Justice Services' OCJS Research Brief highlights findings from the Ohio Crime Victimization Survey (OCVS), which is the first statewide survey of crime victimization in Ohio. This survey was developed and administered by OCJS in2016 with the assistance of Miami University's Applied Research Center and the Bureau of Justice Statistics. These data are designed to supplement data that are reported to law enforcement in order to provide a more complete understanding of crime in Ohio. Findings from the OCVS provide important information about crimes against persons, crimes against property, and cybercrime in Ohio.
Addressing street-level violence such as murders and aggravated assaults and batteries that occur on the public way and often involve firearms requires a multi-pronged approach. This article provides examples of evidence-based practices and programs that strengthen youth resilience and build social capital and work to reduce threats or perceived threats using the OJJDP model as a framework. The article also highlights how the model is enhanced when community stakeholders consider how trauma has impacted residents and those targeted by intervention and suppression efforts.
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