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SAC Publication Digest

Volume XXV

July to December, 2016

The SAC Publication Digest is a comprehensive collection of abstracts of state Statistical Analysis Center (SAC) reports, including reports produced for the SACs by outside authors or organizations. The Digest briefly describes the research, data collection, evaluation, and analysis projects and programs of each SAC during this period, and covers a wide array of justice topics and analysis approaches not available from any other source. The Digest is a resource for anyone concerned with understanding the current major justice issues as well as the administration of justice in the states.

The SACs are units or agencies at the state government level that collect and analyze information from all components of the justice system to contribute to the development of sound public policies and assess their impact. The Justice Research and Statistics Association, whose core members are the SACs, prepared this Digest.

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Alaska

Sexual Violence Committed Against University of Alaska Students, by Gender
Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Center Fact Sheet 16-05
Lindsey Blumenstein and Brad Myrstol, Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Center, University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center
October 2016, 4 pp.

This Fact Sheet presents past year estimates of sexual misconduct and sexual assault victimization against University of Alaska (UA) students both on and off campus. Gender-specific estimates are provided for the UA system as a whole only. The results presented here are based on the survey responses of a randomly selected sample of 1,982 undergraduate and graduate students who were enrolled during spring semester 2016.

Homicide in Alaska, 1986-2015
Khristy Parker, Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Center, University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center
November 2016, 4 pp.

This Fact Sheet presents data from the Alaska Department of Public Safety's annual report Crime in Alaska for the years 1986 through 2015 on homicides in Alaska. Crime in Alaska represents the State of Alaska's contribution to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's national Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) program. The UCR program collects data from law enforcement agencies across the United States. This fact sheet explores the 30-year trend of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter (homicide) rates in Alaska.


Arizona

The Reporting of Sexual Assault in Arizona, CY 2004-2013
Matthew Bileski, Arizona Criminal Justice Commission
September 2016, 19 pp.

The ACJC is required to report on law enforcement reporting, charges, and subsequent case disposition findings (e.g., convictions, acquittals, court dismissals) and sentencing of sexual assault charges and false reporting of sexual assault of a spouse charges. In addition to the mandatory sexual assault statutes, data in the report include violent sexual assault arrest and disposition information reported to the ACCH. This report summarizes some of the latest findings in year-over-year change from CY 2004 to CY 2013 for all sexual assault-related1 arrest and disposition information available from the Arizona Computerized Criminal History (ACCH) repository.

Data used to complete this report are extracted by the DPS from the Arizona Computerized Criminal History (ACCH) repository and provided to the ACJC annually. By statute, local law enforcement agencies, prosecutors and the courts are required to submit to the ACCH repository information on all arrests and subsequent case disposition information for felonies, sexual offenses, driving under the influence offenses, and domestic violence-related offenses. This report focuses on arrests made from calendar years (CY) 2004 to 2013.

Arizona Youth Survey 2016
Arizona Criminal Justice Commission, Arizona State University, and NORC
December 2016, 225 pp.

The Arizona Youth Survey (AYS) was administered to a statewide sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students during the spring of 2016 under direction of the Arizona Criminal Justice Commission's Statistical Analysis Center to comply with Arizona State §41-2416. Based on the nationally recognized Risk and Protective Factor model and the Communities That Care survey (Hawkins et al., 1992), the AYS assesses the prevalence and frequency of youth substance use, gang involvement, and other risky behaviors in Arizona, and helps stakeholders to better understand the risk and protective factors that are correlated with these behaviors.

2016 Arizona Youth Survey: County Profile Reports
Arizona Criminal Justice Commission, Arizona State University, and NORC
December 2016

These reports summarize findings for each specific county from the 2016 Arizona Youth Survey (AYS) administered to 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students during spring 2016.

Mohave, 233 pp. Maricopa, 233 pp. La Paz, 233 pp. Greenlee, 233 pp. Graham, 233 pp.
Gila, 233 pp. Coconino, 233 pp. Apache, 233 pp. Yuma, 2 pp. Yavapai, 233 pp.
Santa Cruz, 233 pp. Pinal, 233 pp. Pima, 233 pp. Navajo, 233 pp. Cochise, 233 pp.

Colorado

Summary of Law Enforcement and District Attorney Reports of Student Contacts
Ernesto Munoz, Peg Flick, Laurence Lucero, Kim English, Office of Research and Statistics
July 2016, 63 pp.

A summary of incidents reported to the Department of Public Safety resulting in student arrests, summons or tickets occurring on school grounds or in school vehicles during the 2014-2015 academic year. This report is meant to be viewed in tandem with a corresponding web-based data dashboard, which provides information on individual schools, law enforcement agencies, and judicial districts.

Analysis of Colorado State Board of Parole Decisions: FY 2015 Report
Kevin Ford, Office of Research and Statistics
September 2016, 77 pp.

This report covers the period from July 2014 to June 2015, and provides information regarding parole regulation in Colorado. It includes a summary of the parole board decision support system, types of Board hearings and reviews (including the samples used for analysis), and findings from the data. In total, 9,916 release application hearings were sampled.

Colorado Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice: FY 2016 Annual Report
Kim English, Office of Research and Statistics; Jeanne Smith, Division of Criminal Justice; Stan Hilkey, Department of Public Safety
December 2016, 56 pp.

This annual report summarizes the Commission's activities from July 2015-June 2016. Central issues include parole, re-entry, data sharing, and community corrections. The report also details the Commission's recommendations and outcomes, including a recommendation that resulted in new 2016 legislation on the statutory purposes of parole.

Report on the C.L.E.A.R. Act: Community Law Enforcement Action Reporting Act
Peg Flick, Kim English, Laurence Lucero, Department of Public Safety
December 2016, 74 pp.

This report summarizes 2015 information on the C.L.E.A.R. Act, which mandates that the Division of Criminal Justice annually analyze and report data reported by law enforcement agencies, the Judicial Department, and the adult Parole Board, to document decisions made at multiple points in the justice system process. The data is analyzed by race/ethnicity and gender, with offense types collapsed into four broad groups: drugs, other, property, and violent crimes.


Delaware

Crime in Delaware 2011-2015: An Analysis of Serious Crime in Delaware
Eric Rager, Jim Salt, Statistical Analysis Center
August 2016, 216 pp.

This is the official report of serious crimes known to Delaware law enforcement agencies. This report provides information about 23 Violent, Serious Property, Drug/Narcotic and Other Property and Social offenses reported in Delaware's implementation of NIBRS operated by the State Bureau of Investigation of the Delaware State Police. Final data for the years 2011 through 2014 and preliminary data for 2015 are included in this report. The report includes a summary of data on serious offenses, clearances, adult and juvenile arrests, and crimes against law enforcement officers at the state and county levels, followed by a detailed data section organized by state and county.

Crime in Delaware 2011-2015: Wilmington Supplement
Eric Rager, Jim Salt, Statistical Analysis Center
August 2016, 22 pp.

The methods used to prepare and analyze Wilmington's data are the same as those described in the main Crime in Delaware report, with one exception: data for Wilmington's two enforcement agencies—the Wilmington Police Department and the Wilmington Fire Marshall— were merged before analyzing the city's data. In this supplement, tables and figures with summary level data about offenses, clearances, and arrests are presented first. These are followed by detailed data tables with counts of offenses, clearances, and adult and juvenile arrests. Summaries of key findings from each level of data are also included prior to both sections.

YRS Facility Populations By Quarter for 2014-2016 1st Quarter
Statistical Analysis Center
September 2016, 49 pp.

YRS facility population information was obtained from YRS for admissions and release to Secure Detention, Level 5 and Level 4 facilities for calendar years 2014 the first quarter of 2016. Using YRS data provided, SAC compiled the admissions and releases, and removed all internal transfers. The overall YRS admissions have increased slightly by 4.1% from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the first quarter of 2016. Admissions in quarter one of 2016 has decreased by 7.8% in comparison to quarter one of 2014 and 26.2% in comparison to quarter four of 2014. Overall, YRS saw a decrease in releases from fourth quarter 2015 to first quarter 2016 of 17.0%, as well as a 25.1% decrease compared to quarter four of 2014.

Delaware Shootings 2015: An Overview of Incidents, Suspects, Victims, and Dispositions
Jim Salt, Statistical Analysis Center
October 2016, 34 pp.

This report is the fifth in a series examining criminal, non-accidental statewide shootings in Delaware. Suspect and victim demographics and arrest histories were matched with incident information. Analyses were then conducted to examine characteristics of shootings, victims, and suspects. Overall, almost 88% of victims were male, and African Americans comprised the largest racial group of victims at about 85%. Most suspects and victims had criminal histories.

Recidivism in Delaware: An Analysis of Prisoners Released in 2010 through 2012
Delaware Criminal Justice Council, Statistical Analysis Center
November 2016, 30 pp.

This is the fourth report produced per the requirements of Delaware Senate Bill 226, which promotes evidence-based practices and helps ensure resources are focused on higher-risk offenders. Three measures of recidivism were analyzed for this report: re-arrest, reconviction, and recommitment. This covers recidivism information from 2010-2012. The findings show that approximately 76% of offenders were rearrested for a serious crime, with 70% of these re-arrests occurring within the first year post-release.


District of Columbia

Research in Brief: Restorative Justice
Statistical Analysis Center
August 2016, 5 pp.

Restorative justice is an approach to criminal justice that focuses on repairing the harm to victims and their communities. Research shows that it can improve both offender outcomes and victim satisfaction, while preventing low-level offenders from moving deeper into the criminal justice system. The report discusses the development of DC's Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) Drop-In Centers, which serve as an alternative to detention for medium to high-risk juveniles, as well as a sanction for youth on probation who are at risk of having their probation revoked.

Research in Brief: New Psychoactive Substances (Synthetic Drugs)
Statistical Analysis Center
August 2016, 5 pp.

This report gives an overview of the three main categories of new psychoactive substances (NPS)—synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and synthetic hallucinogens. It discusses federal and local efforts to combat the use and sale of NPS. In DC, drug testing, prevention and education campaigns, and efforts to coordinate information sharing groups are the main areas of response.

Research in Brief: Super-Utilizers in the District of Columbia
Statistical Analysis Center
October 2016, 5 pp.

This brief gives a summary of "super-utilizers," defined as individuals whose physical, mental, and social needs aren't well met through the healthcare system. It also gives a preview of the various ways in which DC is responding to mental health in the criminal justice system. The DC Department of Behavioral Health has distributed staff and resources to points of intercept in the criminal justice system to ensure that individuals have access to quality services, such as the use of evidence-based practices. Another agency involved is the Pretrial Services Agency, which provides specialized services and supervision to defendants with mental illnesses, mental disabilities, and co-occurring substance use.


Illinois

Evaluation of Chicago Police Department's Crisis Intervention Team for Youth (CIT-Y) Training Curriculum
Rebecca Skorek, Christine Westley, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
July 2016, 71 pp.

CIT-Y courses for officers at the Chicago Police Department (CPD) aim to improve officer awareness of signs and symptoms of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in youth, thereby increasing knowledge of risk levels and crisis de-escalation techniques. By preparing police to identify youth in crisis, the courses may help to reduce additional trauma to officers, youth, and their families, as well as reduce criminalization of juvenile offending behavior related to unmet needs. This study assesses the core training components and measures the curriculum's effect on officer knowledge of and attitudes toward appropriate responses to youth crisis. It also assesses progress on diversification of training participation among CPD staff.

24/7 Sobriety Program Summary
Megan Alderden, Caitlin Delong, Statistical Analysis Center
July 2016, 7 pp.

The 24/7 Sobriety Program uses swift, certain, and moderate sanctioning approach to reduce alcohol and drug-involved driving among individuals who have been previously convicted of driving under the influence. First implemented in South Dakota in 2005, clients served through this program are tested at least twice per day using a breathalyzer test and subject to immediate jail time for positive test results. Evaluations conducted to date have found positive outcomes associated with the program. This article provides a summary of how the program works, prior research findings, and implementation considerations.

Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Sample of Urban Jail Detainees
Dawn Ruzich, Gateway Foundation's Corrections Division; Jessica Reichert, ICJIA; Arthur Lurigio, Loyola University Chicago
August 2016, 7 pp.

This study investigates probable PTSD among men in jail. Detainees generally come from disorderly environments that are plagued by unemployment, housing instability, crime, violence, and other adverse conditions that can precipitate episodes of psychiatric illness among those with genetic or other susceptibilities. These impoverished communities place detainees at high risk of exposure to a host of events that can lead to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Overall, the study suggests that PTSD among male detainees must be considered in the development of jail-based behavioral healthcare services.

Drug Trends and Distribution in Illinois: A Survey of Drug Task Forces
Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
August 2016, 40 pp.

In Illinois, the distribution of controlled substances is a significant problem and task forces were created to combat the distribution of controlled substances at the local level. This study sought to understand the extent of the drug problem in the jurisdictions covered by each drug task force. Authority researchers surveyed 19 authority-funded drug task forces on types of drugs, frequency, trends, use, and distribution. Almost half of the police chiefs and sheriffs identified heroin as the greatest drug threat. Key findings include the need to collaborate to combat the spread of heroin, train law enforcement officers to prevent heroin overdoses, and enhance community outreach by providing information about substance use.

The Impact of Employment Restriction Laws on Illinois' Convicted Felons
Lynne Mock, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
August 2016, 6 pp.

This article discusses the eligibility restrictions for jobs, housing, and education based on a person's prior criminal history. These barriers are damaging to rehabilitation. Due to the disproportionately high involvement of black males in the criminal justice system, these restriction laws are particularly harmful to predominantly black communities. Some of the article's main suggestions are that policymakers should expand the eligibility criteria, and criminal justice professionals should concentrate on helping individuals complete criminal record relief procedures.

Learning About Probation from Client Perspectives
Caitlin DeLong, Jessica Reichert, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
September 2016, 67 pp.

Since 2010, the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority has administered the state's Adult Redeploy Illinois (ARI) program, offering grant funding to jurisdictions to implement local evidence-based programs that reduce the number of non-violent offenders sentenced to prison. In this study, researchers interviewed program clients for insight into program implementation and operations that could strengthen program outcomes. This is an effort to expand research on offender satisfaction with the criminal justice system. Research in the medical and behavioral sciences indicates that client satisfaction is associated with compliance and better treatment outcomes.

Juvenile Justice in Illinois, 2014
Erica Hughes, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
September 2016, 47 pp.

High profile crimes committed by juveniles tend to influence public perception of juvenile crime. National and Illinois data, however, show juvenile crime has dropped over the last 10 years. Only 2% of the juvenile population was arrested in 2014, with even fewer moving deeper into the system. This report provides an overview of Illinois juvenile justice system processes for 2014, with 10-year trend analyses when possible. Processing points examined included: arrest, detention, court, and corrections.

About Uniform Crime Reporting Program data
Erica Hughes, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
September 2016, 11 pp.

The Illinois UCR Program provides state-specific data for the UCR program. Those who use the programs to study crime trends should become familiar with the data source, its method of collection, and caveats needed to ensure proper data context. The researcher suggests resuming training on UCR guidelines as funding allows. Once UCR has transitioned to NIBRS, there will be access to detailed information that allows for closer examination of trends and issues in the criminal justice system.

Reentry Support: Lessons Learned From Community-Based Programs
Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
October 2016, 79 pp.

In 2014, the Reentry Program, one of three components of Illinois' Community Violence Prevention Program (CVPP) receiving funds through the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, provided services to youth and young adults on parole and aftercare in 21 Chicago area communities in order to assist with their compliance with parole board orders and other aspects of successful community reintegration, such as educational enrollment and employment. Authority researchers examined the Reentry Program component of the Community Violence Prevention Program (CVPP) to ascertain how the program was meeting the reentry needs of Chicago area youth and young adults.

Preventing Youth Violence: An Evaluation of Youth Guidance's "Becoming a Man" Program
University of Chicago Crime Lab
November 2016, 12 pp.

This is a report on two evaluations of the "Becoming a Man" (BAM) Program, from 2009-10 and from 2013-15. BAM counselors help youth recognize their automatic responses and slow down their thinking in high-stake situations using elements of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Findings show that BAM has been highly successful so far, and that CBT activities are effective in helping youth make better informed decisions. However, further research is needed regarding what specific elements of CBT are critical in impacting youth outcomes.

A State and National Overview of the Opioid and Heroin Crisis
Jessica Reichert, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority; Vernon Smith, US Department of Education
November 2016, 23 pp.

Opioid and heroin use is surging in Illinois communities and across the country with dramatic increases in the number of users and deaths by overdose. Communities, criminal justice practitioners, and public health professionals are struggling to help those suffering from opioid use disorders and, ultimately, save lives. This article provides an overview of the opioid epidemic and its causes, including the link between prescription opioids and heroin.

Housing and Services After Prison: Evaluation of the St. Leonard's House Reentry Program
Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority
December 2016, 109 pp.

This report focuses on St. Leonard's House, a voluntary, residential, prisoner reentry program for men in Chicago. The program helps residents reenter society through helping them overcome substance abuse, gain education, life skills, employment, and permanent housing. Research goals were to describe the program and its residents, examine the program's impact, and make suggestions about how to enhance programming. Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority researchers compared rearrest, reconviction, reincarceration, and employment rates between a resident group and a control group. Additionally, staff examined administrative program reports and interviewed program staff. Results show that residents had longer periods of desistence and earned relatively higher incomes than members of the comparison group.


Indiana

Governor's Task Force on Drug Enforcement, Treatment and Prevention
Indiana Criminal Justice Institute
December 2016, 106 pp.

Through a series of regional public meetings, the Task Force heard public testimony from a variety of stakeholders, including individuals directly affected by substance use disorders (SUD), local and state government officials, clinical providers, law enforcement officials, and community leaders. In addition, the Task Force assessed Indiana's capacity to respond to the crisis and reviewed both state and national best practices in the area of SUD enforcement, treatment, and prevention. The report highlights the need for continued focus on the Task Force's recommendations, and regular monitoring and implementation of new solutions to address SUD.


Michigan

Cleaning and Analyzing Michigan Incident Crime Reporting Data (MICR) in the R Statistical Computing Environment
Jason Rydberg, School of Criminology and Justice Studies, Center for Program Evaluation, University of Massachusetts Lowell
December 2016, 40 pp.

This guide has been developed to support researchers interested in working with incident-based crime data within the R statistical computing environment. Specifically, this tutorial focuses on the Michigan Incident Crime Reporting (MICR) system, but the practices described here could be applied to the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) more broadly. Historically, criminological research has been heavily influenced by summary-based reporting systems, particularly the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). As data only reflecting crimes reported to the police, the limitations associated with these data are well known among researchers and students of criminology alike.2 Because the NIBRS program data is generated in a similar fashion - as crimes reported to the police - it does not solve many of the dilemmas posed by UCR data. However, as an incident-based reporting system, NIBRS is able to make major improvements on the UCR as it related to the unit of analysis.


New York

Domestic Homicide in New York State 2015
Adriana Fernandez-Lanier, New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
July 2016, 15 pp.

This report, compiled by the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS), presents a statistical account of domes tic homicide reported by state and local police in New York State during 2015. Domestic homicides among intimate partner and other family members are compared with all other homicides statewide and by region. Regional homicide data are presented for the five counties of New York City and the rest of the state. Statistics are presented on demographic characteristics of homicide victims, the circumstances surrounding the homicide, and the types of weapons used. Special attention is given to intimate partner homicide, which is the most frequent type of domestic homicide. In addition, relevant findings from the analysis of homicides involving minor child victims and other family member victims are also presented. Domestic homicide trends across the five-year period from 2011 to 2015 are detailed in an additional section of this report. Finally, appendices detail domestic homicide by county and region.

Hate Crime in New York State 2015 Annual Report
Brian Denvir, New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
August 2016, 14 pp.

This report contains statistical findings for hate crimes reported in New York State for 2015. It summarizes hate crimes reported by police, the numbers of hate crime arrests, offenses associated with arrests, the county of arrest, and disposition information, when available. Data are derived from two sources: Crime data are drawn from hate crime incident reports sub-mitted by local and state police, and arrest data are derived from the Computerized Criminal History system at the Division of Criminal Justice Services.

New York State Violent Felony Offense Processing 2015 Annual Report
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
August 2016, 21 pp.

New York state law specifies certain felonies as "violent felony offenses" (VFO), and persons convicted of VFOs are sentenced differently than those convicted of non-VFO felonies. This law also requires the Division of Criminal Justice Services to report on the processing and disposition of persons charged with VFOs. This report provides information regarding arrests for violent felony offenses (VFO), prosecutions in superior court for persons charged with a VFO in an indictment or superior court information (SCI), and for the disposition of superior court cases for 2011 to 2015. It contains a findings section that provides an overview of changes that took place during the five-year period; a data notes section that describes the sources of the data used in the report and other explanatory information; and a section containing tables with additional information about the processing of persons charged with VFOs.

Crime in New York State 2015 Final Data
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
September 2016, 25 pp.

New York State and the FBI use seven Index crime categories as indicators of overall crime trends: murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, which are classified as violent crimes; and the property crimes of burglary, larceny and motor vehicle theft. This report details Index crime in New York State, its 62 counties and two regions - New York City and the 57 counties outside of the five boroughs - for 2015. Police departments and sheriffs' offices report Index crime to the Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) through the Uniform Crime Reporting and Incident Based Reporting programs.

New York State Motor Vehicle Theft and Insurance Board Annual Report
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
September 2016, 47 pp.

The impact of motor vehicle theft and motor vehicle insurance fraud on insurance rates in New York State are highly sophisticated and cost law-abiding motor vehicle owners and insurance policy holders hundreds of millions of dollars. The New York Motor Vehicle Theft and Insurance Fraud Prevention Demonstration Program (MVTIFP) is designed to reduce the overall cost of motor vehicle insurance in the state by targeting theft and fraud. A 12-member Motor Vehicle Theft and Insurance Fraud Prevention Board, including representatives of law enforcement, consumers of motor vehicle insurance, insurance carriers, and relevant state agency representatives selected by the Governor and the Legislature, is responsible for overseeing the program. The New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services provides staff support to the board and the program. This annual report details the activities of the board and the program and is published as required under Executive Law §846-1(3)(h).

2009 Drug Law Changes 2016 Annual Report
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
November 2016, 26 pp.

The 2009 reforms to New York's Rockefeller Drug Laws included a requirement to study the impact of these changes. This is the latest in a series of reports on the impact of the 2009 drug law changes on arrests, indictments and commitments to prison for felony drug offenses. In addition, the report summarizes the impact of judicial diversion on admissions to felony drug court and associated recidivism rates.

Environmental Conservation Law Offenses: Hazardous Waste and Waste Disposal 2015 Annual Report
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
November 2016, 5 pp.

New York law requires the Division of Criminal Justice Services to report on the number of persons charged with offenses violating Articles 27, 37 and 40, and Titles 27 and 37 of Article 71 of the Environmental Conservation Law (ECL) regarding hazardous waste and waste disposal. These laws concern the collection, treatment, disposal of refuse or other solid waste, and the regulation of substances characterized as hazardous or acutely hazardous to the public health, safety, or to the environment. This annual report provides information about the numbers of persons arrested for ECL offenses from 2011 to 2015. The arrest counts are derived from information about fingerprintable adult arrests transmitted by law enforcement agencies to the DCJS Computerized Criminal History (CCH) system and are based on the most serious charge in the arrest event. Because CCH is a fingerprint-based database, prosecutions of corporations or other entities are not identified.

Executive Law Article 13-A Classification/Alternatives to Incarceration Program 2014 Annual Report
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
November 2016, 6 pp.

New York Executive Law Article 13-A requires that counties submit an Alternative to Incarceration (ATI) Service Plan for Classification Funding to New York State. The Plan is designed to identify and provide eligible ATI programs as determined by either an advisory board established pursuant to this law or by an existing criminal justice coordinating council. The annual ATI Service Plan provides counties the opportunity to examine their criminal justice and jail populations and to conduct planning for effective ATI programs that reduce unnecessary reliance on incarceration. Upon approval of the Plan, the state provides counties funding (requires 50% match) for those programs, as well as the authority for the continued use of reduced classification at the jails they operate.

Felony Insurance Fraud Offenses 2015 Annual Report
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
November 2016, 6 pp.

New York law requires the Division of Criminal Justice Services to report on the processing and disposition of Penal Law Article 176 (Insurance Fraud) felony offenses. This report complies with that reporting requirement and provides processing information for persons arrested for felony Insurance Fraud offenses from 2011 to 2015. The counts of arrests are derived from fingerprintable adult arrest information transmitted by law enforcement agencies to the DCJS Computerized Criminal History (CCH) system and are based on the most serious charge in the arrest event.

New York State Felony Processing Report: Indictment through Disposition January - December 2015
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
November 2016, 37 pp.

This report presents statistics concerning the processing of felony cases in New York State’s superior courts and complies with a reporting requirement of New York State law that the Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) collects and analyzes statistical information on felony indictments and superior court information (SCI) and on the dispositions of these felony cases. Beyond complying with the reporting requirement, the intent of this statewide report, and similar reports for 66 prosecutors’ offices in the state, is to supply useful and timely information to criminal justice practitioners and policy makers. The source of the data used in this report is a "felony processing file" derived from New York State’s criminal history records database, known as the Computerized Criminal History (CCH) system, which is maintained by DCJS. The report includes 21 statistical tables based on data posted to the CCH database as of March 22, 2016.

New York State Gun Involved Violence Elimination (GIVE) Initiative Crime, Arrest, and Firearm Activity Report
New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance
November 2016, 121 pp.

The GIVE initiative targets 20 police departments in 17 counties Upstate and on Long Island that report 87 percent of violent crime outside of New York City. This report contains the following statistics reported by those police departments: Index Crimes, Firearm-Related Violent Crimes, Shooting Incidents, Domestic Violence-Related Activity, and Total Arrests. The report also includes Index Crime statistic totals for 17 GIVE counties compared to Index Crime statistic totals for the 40 other counties outside of New York City as well as 10-year trends for: Statewide and Regional (New York City counties vs. Non-NYC counties) Index Crimes; Firearm-Related Violent Crimes outside of New York City; Statewide and Regional Arrests; and Index Crime Counts and Rates for communities served by each of the 20 GIVE agencies.


North Dakota

Crime in North Dakota, 2015
Colleen Weltz, Bureau of Criminal Investigation, Office of the Attorney General
July 2016, 176 pp.

The North Dakota Incident-Based Reporting (IBR) program involves the collection, compilation, and analysis of crime and arrest statistics reported by the various local law enforcement agencies throughout the state. Fifty-three sheriffs' departments, 54 police departments, 10 Task Forces and the ND Highway Patrol reported to the ND IBR program in 2015.

The 2015 Crime in North Dakota is based solely upon incident data. Data submitted by ND IBR to the FBI is converted from incident based statistics to the summary system of reporting. In the FBI data, only the most serious of the eight Index crimes are reported. The number of victims is counted in the most serious offenses of homicide, assault, kidnapping or rape. We strongly discourage attempting to compare the ND IBR data to any previously UCR Summary data released by North Dakota or the FBI in the Crime in the United States publications. The data sets are not comparable due to the number of types of crimes reported and that all offenses in the incident are reported in ND IBR.

Homicide in North Dakota, 2015
Colleen Weltz, Bureau of Criminal Investigation, Office of the Attorney General
July 2016, 176 pp.

The term "homicide," for purposes of this report, includes the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) offenses of murder and non-negligent manslaughter. Homicide refers to the "willful killing of one human being by another." It does not include attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, justifiable homicides or deaths caused by gross negligence.

In 2015, twenty-one homicide deaths were known to the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program. Based on a state population estimate of 756,927, the resulting homicide rate for the state of North Dakota was 2.7 per 100,000 population. See Table 2 on page 3 for information regarding rates for previous years.


Oregon

Oregon Juvenile Justice System Recidivism Analysis
Oregon Statistical Analysis Center, Criminal Justice Commission
July 2016, 27 pp.

Historically, the Oregon Youth Authority (OYA) has tracked recidivism using the same definition as the adult system- a felony adjudication from juvenile court, or a felony conviction from adult court, within three years of release from a youth correctional facility or imposition of probation. OYA has published reports tracking this recidivism measure for youth released from a youth correctional facility or on OYA probation. In addition, the juvenile justice system has also tracked recidivism for referred youth by tracking a new referral within 12 months. The new definition tracks all youth that were previously adjudicated regardless of if they were served by a county or a state.

The recidivism analysis in this report is the first comprehensive statewide analysis of youth recidivism using the newer adult definition found in ORS 423.557 as the guide. There are limitations with the current available data, as well as challenges due to the differences in terminology, processes, and population across the adult and juvenile justice systems. There are also differences in the data used in the adult report compared to this report. This analysis starts from all youth previously adjudicated, and includes arrest, juvenile referral, misdemeanor and felony conviction, misdemeanor and felony adjudication, and incarceration and other sentence type data in a single recidivism analysis.

Task Force on Public Safety Justice Reinvestment Report to the Legislature
Oregon Statistical Analysis Center, Criminal Justice Commission
October 2016, 56 pp.

In July 2013, the Oregon Legislature passed House Bill 3194, known as the Justice Reinvestment Act, in response to a nearly 50% increase in Oregon's rate of incarceration between 2000 and 2010. Justice Reinvestment is an approach to spending resources more effectively with the goals of decreasing prison use, reducing recidivism, increasing public safety and holding offenders accountable. This approach can only continue to work as long as it is fully funded. The program depends on certainty of funds for county Justice Reinvestment programs to continue to operate. If Justice Reinvestment is not adequately funded there will be immediate prison bed costs far in excess of the cost of funding the program.

HB 3194 created the Justice Reinvestment Grant Programs and included several sentencing changes. This bill also created the Task Force on Public Safety with the purpose of reviewing the implementation of the bill. The Task Force must submit a report to the Legislative Assembly by October 1, 2016 that describes their findings. The Criminal Justice Commission (CJC) staffs the Task Force and tracks prison bed savings from the sentencing changes in HB 3194, county prison use for related Property, Drug and Driving crimes, recidivism and the male and female prison forecasts. This report includes legislative recommendations and topics for further consideration by the Task Force and summarizes the implementation of several key areas in the bill, including sentencing changes, the Justice Reinvestment Grant Program and the Center for Policing Excellence.

Oregon Recidivism Analysis
Kelly Officer and Courtney Riggs, Oregon Statistical Analysis Center
November 2016, 35 pp.

This report is the fourth in a series of comprehensive statewide analysis of adult recidivism. The most recent data available is included, and the statewide recidivism analysis is provided in this report. In addition, the CJC has released an interactive and online data dashboard to present the recidivism analyses3. This data dashboard includes many different filters and breakouts of the recidivism data, including results by gender, age, race, county, and risk to recidivate level. This dashboard is available to criminal justice stakeholders and members of the public as an interactive and online data-sharing tool to provide recidivism analysis results.


South Dakota

2016 Police Management Study
Brenda Manning, State of South Dakota, Office of Attorney General Criminal Statistical Analysis Center
July 2016, 18 pp.

This was the 16th time the SAC compiled statewide management data pertaining to South Dakota police departments. The results of this survey are intended to provide police chiefs with a valid means of comparing expenditures and resources of departments across the State. In addition, the results should provide the Chiefs with a substantial basis from which to justify future managerial decisions.

Currently, there are 73 police departments in South Dakota (this figure does not include tribal agencies). Forty-three departments returned surveys yielding a total response rate of 59%. This is the lowest response rate since the inception. Of the 73 respondents, none designated themselves as a part-time department.


Washington

Washington Residents' Perceptions of Sex Offenders and Sex Offender Policies
Leah Fisher, Amelie Pedneault, Washington State Statistical Analysis Center
September 2016, 28 pp.

This study aims to measure Washington residents' perceptions of sex offenders, and subsequently the relationship between their knowledge of sex offender characteristics and level of support for sex offender policies. This allows for a better understanding of what factors might influence opinions when similar sex offenses are committed, and may help shape a new tiering system of offenders. The researchers surveyed 1,000 residents, of which 84.9% were white and 56.3% female.

Youth Aging Out of Foster Care
Paula Henzel, Jim Mayfield, Andrés Soriano, David Marshall, Barbara Felver, Research and Data Analysis Division, Department of Social and Health Services
September 2016, 10 pp.

Prior research indicates that compared to youth in the general population, foster youth aging out of care have an increased risk of criminal involvement. To help inform targeted interventions and exit planning, this report begins to identify key risk and protective factors associated with criminal justice involvement among youth transitioning to adulthood the year after aging out of foster care. This report builds on a prior analysis using linked administrative data to identify key risk and protective factors associated with homelessness after aging out of care.

Of Jobs and Jail: Outcomes for Washington State Property Offenders
Matthew Landon, Washington State Statistical Analysis Center
October 2016, 30 pp.

This study establishes baseline statistics for property offender outcomes in Washington, including the rate and speed at which property offenders recidivate, the rate and quality at which offenders are employed, and inherent differences in outcomes of various demographic groups. The sample consists of 29,709 adults, with an average recidivism rate of 34%.

Wyoming

Views of Marijuana in Wyoming
WY SAC Issues in Brief
Brian Harnisch, Rodney A. Wambeam, and Eric L. Canen, Wyoming Survey & Analysis Center, University of Wyoming
October 2016, 3 pp.

The survey results presented in this brief show that Wyoming residents have changing opinions regarding the use and possession of marijuana, although those opinions continue to be mixed depending on the specific situation. While a majority of Wyoming residents continue to oppose legalization of marijuana in the state for personal use, a large majority of Wyoming resident support the legal use of marijuana in the state for medicinal use if it is prescribed by a doctor.




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