Bibliography of Mapping-Related Resources
Numerous articles and reports have been written on mapping. If you know of any not on our list, please let us know.
Anselin, L., Cohen, J., Cook, D., Gorr, W., and Tita,
G. (2000). Spatial
Analyses of Crime. Measurement and Analysis of Crime and Justice, 4.
The authors focus on methodological issues in the spatial statistical analysis of crime data.
Antenucci, J., Brown, K., Croswell, P., Kevany, M., and Archer, H. (1991). Geographic Information Systems: A Guide to the Technology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Bair, S. (2000). Geographic Information
Analysis: From GIS to GIA. Crime
Mapping and Analysis Program.
This article proposes a means of advancing beyond GIS systems to a more analytical construct, Geographic Information Analysis.
Baker, T. E. (2001). Burglary Mapping: A 2001
Cyberspace Odyssey. Law and Order Volume, 49(5), 30 - 34.
This article discusses crime trend forecasts, the identification of the prevailing tendency or general movement of burglary frequencies for a particular geographic area over a specified time span. Computer burglary correlations can identify burglary suspects by systematically matching the suspects vehicle and modus operandi information from crime reports and information from offender based computer files.
Bibel, D. (2000). Statewide Crime Analysis and Mapping: An
On-Going Project. Crime
Mapping News, 2(3), 1-4.
This article presents a discussion of the use of IBR data for mapping among police agencies in Massachusetts and provides an overview of the SCAMP project, a system that will allow local police agencies throughout Massachusetts to examine and study crime within their jurisdictions. For additional information on the SCAMP project, please see the write-up under state projects.
Block, C. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Crime Program Hot Spot Areas: A Statistical tool for Law Enforcement Decisions. Chicago: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
The author presents an overview of the STAC software, developed by the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
Block, C. and Dabdoub, M. (1993). Workshop on Crime Analysis Through Computer Mapping Proceedings: 1993. Chicago: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
Block, C. R., Dabdoub, M., and Fregly, S. (1995).
Crime Analysis Through Computer Mapping. Washington, DC: PERF.
This booklet provides 25 essays on spatial crime analysis as it is being applied in law enforcement agencies.
Block, C. and Green, L. (1994). The Geoarchive Handbook: A Guide for Developing a Geographic Database as an Information Foundation for Community Policing. Chicago: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
Block, C. and Miller, L. (1983). Manual for the Patter Description of Time Series, Part 1: Guide to Pattern Description. Chicago: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
Block, R. (2000). Gang Activity and Overall Levels of
Crime: A New Mapping Tool for Defining Areas of Gang Activity Using Police Records. Journal
of Quantitative Criminology, 16(3), 369 - 383.
This article outlines a new method for defining gang activity areas used in the Chicago Police Department's 1996 incident files. The method was based upon standard geographic techniques and used a uniform grid that divided the city into 150-meter squares. The technique may be useful both in describing gang activity areas and in describing the spatial distribution of crime in large cities.
Boggs, S. L. (1965). Urban Crime Patterns. American Sociological Review, 30, 899-908.
Brantingham, P. J. and Brantingham, P. L. (1981). Environmental Criminology. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Brantingham, P. J. and Brantingham, P. L. (1984). Patterns in Crime. New York: Macmillan.
Brimcombe, A. J., Ralphs, M. P., Sampson, A., and Tsui, H.
Y. (2001). Analysis of the Role of Neighbourhood Ethnic Composition in the
Geographical Distribution of Racially Motivated Incidents. British Journal of
Criminology, 41(2), 293 - 308.
This British study explored the usefulness of statistical and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping techniques in producing a preliminary assessment of the geographical distribution of racially motivated crimes and harassment in a given area.
Brownsberger, W. N. (2000). Race Matters:
Disproportionality of Incarceration for Drug Dealing in Massachusetts. Journal
of Drug Issues, 30(2), 345 - 374.
This study used a mapping of the pre-incarceration residences of drug dealers incarcerated in state prison in Massachusetts to systematically explore neighborhood and certain other explanations for the disproportionate impact on young minority males of harsh sentencing policies for drug dealing.
Bruce, C.W. (2001). A Thousand Words for a Picture: Is the Overvaluation of GIS Disrupting a Critical Balance in Crime Analysis? Crime Analyst's Round Table, 1.
Cameron, J. G. (2001). Spatial Analysis of Crime in
Appalachia. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, NCJ-189559.
This study aimed to demonstrate the contributions that geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis procedures could make to the study of crime patterns in a largely nonmetropolitan region and examined the extent to which the relationship between various structural factors and crime varied across Appalachia between 1980 and 1990.
Clark, K. C. (1995). Analytical and Computer Cartography. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Clark, K. C. (1997). Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mapping and Analysis Program (CMAP). (2002). Advanced Crime Mapping
Topics. Denver, CO: University of Denver.
This document is the result of the first Advanced Crime Mapping Topics Symposium, held June 25 - 27, 2001. Nineteen leading professionals and academicians in the fields of crime analysis, crime mapping, spatial analysis, and criminology joined together in Denver, conducting an in-depth exchange of research findings and practical knowledge. These highly focused discussions and exchanges have resulted in fifteen articles.
Dent, B. D. (1990). Cartography: Thematic Map Design. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.
Eck, J. and Weisburd, D. (1995). Crime and Place.
Monsey, NY: Willow Tree Press.
This book provides a collection of essays on the relationship between crime and location.
Elliott, M. and Wagner, J. (2000). School Hostage
Drill Demonstrates Importance of Mapping Technology. Police Chief, 67(9), 50
This article describes how a geographic information system (GIS) was used by the Upland Police Department (California) to stage a 4-hour practice drill at Upland High School for the purpose of responding to a simulated hostage situation on the school campus.
Evans, D. J. and Herbert, D. T. (1989). The Geography of Crime. London: Rutledge.
Faggiani, D., Bibel, D.B., and Brensilber, D. (2001). Regional Problem Solving Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System. In C. S. Brito, M. Rueland, and L. Carroll's Solving Crime and Disorder Problems. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.
Fortner, R. E. (1998). Computer Technology: Mapping
the Future. Police, 22(7), 16 - 21.
The use of computers for crime mapping by police is examined, with emphasis on how the systems now go beyond simply identifying high-crime areas and offer insights into hot spots and crime patterns to enable police agencies to develop improved crime control strategies.
Fotheringham, S. and Rogerson, P. (1995). Spatial Analysis and GIS. Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis.
Garson, D. G. and Vann, I. B. (2001). Crime Mapping for Small and Medium
Jurisdictions. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina
Governor's Crime Commission.
The authors present management strategies for implementing geographic information systems in small and medium jurisdictions.
Glazer, E. (2000). Harnessing Information in a Prosecutor's
Office. National Institute of Justice Journal, October, 2 - 7.
Using computers, maps, and a relational database, a team of prosecutors, computer programmers, and clerical staff in the office of Mary Jo White of the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York created a system that at the press of a button shows that agencies are working in a particular geographic area.
Groff, E. R. and La Vigne, N. G. (2001). Mapping an
Opportunity Surface of Residential Burglary. Journal of Research in Crime and
Delinquency, 38(3), 257-278.
This article examines the utility of raster-based mapping software for predicting locations of burglaries, as well as likely locations for crime displacement or diffusion.
Haining, R. (1990). Spatial Data Analysis in the Social and Environmental Sciences. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Harries, K. D. (1974). Geography of Crime and Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Harries, K. (1990). Geographic Factors in Policing.
Washington, DC: PERF.
This article summarizes research concerning the geography of crime and provides insight into using maps to develop to tools for solving crime.
Harries, K. (1999). Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice.
Washington, DC: Mapping and Analysis
for Public Safety program (formerly the Crime Mapping Research Center).
This guide introduces the science of crime mapping to police officers, crime analysts, and other people interested in visualizing crime data through the medium of maps. The author addresses the kinds of questions crime mapping can answer and how.
Higgins, D. F. (2003). A
Crime Analyst's Guide to Mapping. Published by the Illinois Criminal Justice
Using a fictional scenario over time, this manual demonstrates the ways mapping can be incorporated into all stages of the crime analysis process, from problem identification to final response and assessment.
Kelly, J. (1999). MapInfo Helps Take a Byte Out of
Mapping News, 1(4), 5 - 7.
This article describes the benefits and characteristics of crime-mapping systems used by the New York City Police Department, the New York State Bureau of Arson, London's New Scotland Yard, the Minneapolis Police Department, and the Baltimore Police Department.
La Vigne, N. (1999). Computerized Mapping as a Tool for Problem-Oriented Policing. Crime Mapping News, 1(1).
La Vigne, N. and Wartell, J. (1998). Crime Mapping
Case Studies. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.
The purpose of this volume is to disseminate examples representing best practices of geographic information system (GIS) use in criminal justice.
La Vigne, N. and Wartell, J. (2000). Crime Mapping
Case Studies, Volume 2. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.
This is the second volume of case studies designed to disseminate examples representing best practices of geographic information system (GIS) use in criminal justice.
La Vigne, N. and Wartell, J. (2001). Mapping Across
Boundaries: Regional Crime Analysis.
This publication addresses the obstacles and answers in developing regional crime mapping. The 130-page report is a primer for police agency personnel and students of mapping who want to
enhance crime control and prevention efforts.
LeBeau, J. L. Demonstrating the Analytical Utility
of GIS for Police Operations: A Final Report. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
This report discusses a three-part project involving a partnership between the Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC, Police Department and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale to demonstrate the analytical usefulness of geographic information systems (GIS) for police operations.
Levine, N. (1999). Development of a Spatial Analysis
Toolkit for Use in a Metropolitan Crime Incident Geographic Information System.
Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, NCJ 179282.
This report summarizes the development of a Windows-based spatial statistics computer program that can analyze crime incident location data. The report also includes copies of the user's manual and a quick reference guide.
Lodha, S. K. and Verma, A. (1999). Animations of Crime Maps Using Virtual
Reality Modeling Language. Western Criminology Review, 1(2), 1 - 19.
The authors discuss virtual reality modeling language (VRML), which provides a new technique in computer graphics that can animate and investigate complex crime maps by allowing the user to examine a map conveniently by walking around or flying through it, as if it were a small object held at arm's length.
Lutz, W. E. (2000). Establishing a Paperless Crime
Analysis Network. Law and Order, 48(5), 115 - 118.
The author describes procedures for establishing a paperless crime analysis service through a distributed network based on the use of standard desktop computers and basic office networks.
MacEachren, A. (1995). How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization and Design. New York: Guilford Press.
MacKay, R. (1999). Geographic Profiling: A New Tool
for Law Enforcement. Police Chief, 66(12), 51 - 59.
The author reviews geographic profiling, a powerful investigative tool that was instrumental in identifying the suspect in the case of the Southside Rapist in St. Louis in 1998.
Maltz, M.D., Gordon, A.C., and Friedman, W. (1990). Mapping Crime in Its Community Setting: Event Geography Analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Mamalian, C. A. and LaVigne, N. G. (1999). The Use of Computerized Crime Mapping by
Law Enforcement: Survey Results. Washington, DC: National Institute of
Justice, Mapping and Analysis for Public
Safety program (formerly the Crime Mapping Research Center), FS 000237.
This publication reports the results of a nationwide crime mapping survey, conducted to determine who uses geographical information systems (GIS) and why other agencies are not using this mapping technology.
Mapping and Analysis
for Public Safety program (formerly the Crime Mapping Research Center).
Summary: National Institute of Justice Mapping in Corrections Resource Group Meeting.
Washington, DC: Author.
This publication presents a summary of an expert roundtable to identify the ways in which GIS is being used in the corrections community. Five agencies from around the country presented their mapping efforts including: the Wisconsin Department of Corrections, the Center for Alternative Sentencing and Employment Services (CASES,) the Delaware Statistical Analysis Center, Maricopa County Adult Probation, and the Office of the Orleans Parish Criminal Sheriff.
Mapping and Analysis for Public Safety (MAPS) program. (2001). Translating Spatial Research Into Practice. Washington, DC: Author.
Monmonier, M. (1991). How to Lie With Maps. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Mommonier, M. (1993). Mapping It Out. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Mulmat, D. H., Rienick, C., Melton, R., and Pennell, S., San Diego
Association of Governments. (1998). Targeting Auto Theft with a Regional
Task Force and Mapping Technology. Washington, DC: National Institute of
Justice, NCJ 185356.
This study evaluates the San Diego, CA, Regional Auto Theft Task Force (RATT) and a computer system to enhance the crime analysis and mapping capabilities of RATT. The study examined data from official records on cases investigated by RATT as well as through traditional law enforcement responses. The Task Force data were used in development of the Crime Analysis and Mapping System (CAMS).
National Association of
Chiefs of Police. (2002). Local College and Police Team Up to Provide
Crime Analysis and Mapping. The Chief of Police, XVI(2), 23-24.
Several students with criminal justice majors worked with the Gloucester City, NJ police department to examined crime data in the hopes of identifying various patterns of criminal activity.
Nelson, L. (1999). Crime Mapping and ESRI. Crime Mapping News, 1(4), 1
Crime mapping enables police agencies to identify crime-ridden areas for the purpose of allocating resources in a cost-effective manner; in addition to explaining the benefits of crime mapping, this article describes the tools for crime mapping produced by ESRI, Inc.
New Orleans Police
Department. (2001). Affordable Crime Mapping and Information Sharing
Technology. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, NCJ 188873.
This is the final report on the New Orleans Police Department's (NOPD) Crime Mapping and Information Sharing (CMIS) Technology grant, which gave the NOPD the opportunity to develop an innovative system built on proven technologies that provides community-oriented police officers and community residents with the ability to see and share information for the purpose of solving problems that cause crime.
Onsrud, H. J. and Rushton, G. (1995). Sharing Geographic Information. New Brusnwick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.
Pilant, L. (1999). Crime Mapping and Analysis. Police
Chief, 66(12), 38 - 47.
The investigation and arrest of police officer and serial rapist Randy Comeaux in Louisiana in January 1999 used a relatively new technique called geographic profiling, which takes conventional crime mapping techniques and reverses them.
Ratcliffe, J. (2000). Implementing and Integrating
Crime Mapping Into a Police Intelligence Environment. International Journal of
Police Science and Management, 2(4), 313 - 323.
This paper examines the technical issues in the transference of information on crime locations to a mappable format and then analyzes an input/output model for two applications of crime mapping within the British police service.
Ratcliffe, J.H. (2001). On the Accuracy of Tiger-Type Geocoded Address Data in Relation to Cadastral and Census Areal Units. International Journal of Geographical Informaiton Science, 15(5).
Reilly, C. and Goldsmith, V. (1999). RACKETS: Case
Tracking and Mapping System. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, NCJ
This manual provides an overview of Rackets, a case tracking and mapping application developed for the U.S. Attorney's Office of the Southern District of New York (SDNY).
Rengert, G. F. and Wasilchick, J. (1985). Suburban Burglary: A Time and Place for Everything. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Rich, T., Abt Associates. (1995). The Use of Computerized Mapping in Crime
Control and Prevention Programs. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice,
This article offers an overview of current uses of mapping technologies based on a literature review and interviews. It discusses the general application of mapping software to crime prevention and control and then discusses specific applications by police departments, community organizations, mulitagency task forces, and other types of government agencies.
Rich, T., Abt Associates. (1996). The Chicago Police Department's
Information Collection for Automated Mapping (ICAM) Program. Washington, DC:
National Institute of Justice, NCJ 160764.
The author discusses the Chicago Police Department's crime mapping program, including the issues faced by departments in mapping. The program features are outlined, along with how the program is used and the impact crime mapping has had on the department.
Rich, T., Abt Associates. (1999). Mapping the Path to Problem Solving.
Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
This article explains how computer mapping and geographic information systems (GIS) are used in a variety of criminal justice and public safety settings, including law enforcement, collaborative enforcement and problem solving efforts, and corrections.
Rich, T. (2001). Crime Mapping and Analysis by
Community Organizations in Hartford, Connecticut. Washington, DC: The National Institute of Justice.
The National Institute of Justice sponsored an assessment of one community's efforts to adapt crime mapping technologies for community use, highlighted in this publication.
Rogers, D. (1999). Getting Crime Analysis on the
Map. Law Enforcement Technology, 26(11), 76 - 79.
The use of geographic information system (GIS) technology enables police to automate certain functions and analyze complex data to provide visual direction on how to address crime patterns.
Rogers, D. (2000). Trends in Crime Analysis and Crime
Mapping. Law Enforcement Technology, 27(5), 36 - 42.
This article reports on recent trends in police crime analysis and crime mapping.
Rogers, D. (2000). Mapping Covers New Ground. Law
Enforcement Technology, 27(7), 74 - 78.
The author reviews computer-aided mapping software, which is having a major impact on law enforcement and includes a variety of products ranging from navigational software that creates off-road maps to analysis software that predicts patterns of criminal behavior.
Rogers, D. (2000). GPS: Getting the Proper
Positioning. Law Enforcement Technology, 27(9), 44 - 50.
Combining the global positioning system (GPS) with geographic information systems (GIS) and automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems enables a police department to determine the location of each patrol vehicle without any communication from the officer operating the vehicle.
Rogers, D. (2001). Rap on Mapping: Mapping Shows
Correlations Between Crime, Demographics, Societal Issues and More. Law
Enforcement Technology, 28(6), 64 - 68.
This article describes the procedures and benefits of crime mapping as used by various police departments to analyze crime patterns and allocate police resources.
Rossmo, D.K. (1997). Geographic Profiling. In J. L. Jackson and D. A. Bekerian's (Eds) Offender Profiling: Theory, Research and Practice. Chichester: Wiley and Sons.
Shaw, C. R. and McKay, H.D. (1969). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Simpson, J. L. (1989). Applied Community Research Monograph C3: Visual Display of Statistics. Alexandria, VA: American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association.
Stallo, M. What is Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) and How Does One Get Started? Analysis
Consulting Training (ACT) Now, Inc.
This document covers the basics of what a GIS entails, how to get started, and what the pitfalls are in setting up a GIS.
Stallo, M. (1997). Mapping Software and its Value to
Law Enforcement. In M. Stallo's and K. Haley's Crime and Punishment in the Lone
This article provides a basic understanding of using mapping software in law enforcement agencies.
Stoe, D. A., Watkins, C.R., and Craig, T. (2003). Using
Geographic Information Systems To Map Crime Victim Services. Published by the
Office for Victims of Crime, NCJ 191877.
Tester, D. and Rodillo, E. ( 2000).
Challenges to Mapping and Linking NIBRS Data in South Carolina. Columbia,
SC: South Carolina Department of Public Safety.
This report outlines the results of a project undertaken to determine the feasibility of using crime data maintained at the local level to do spatial analysis. If you would like a copy of this report, please contact the SCDPS.
Tufte, E. R. (1983). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Chelshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Tufte, E. R. (1997). Visual Explanations. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Wartell, J. (2000). Putting Crime on the Map. Police,
24(6), 52 - 55.
The author discusses how the advent of crime-mapping technology and Internet access to crime maps involves both challenges and benefits. Police, analysts, academicians, and the media agree that continued dialogue and evaluation are needed on how Internet access to crime maps affects public safety.
Weisburd, D. and Green, L. (1995). Policing Drug Hot Spots: The Jersey City Drug Market Analysis Experiment. Justice Quarterly, 4(12).
Weisburd, D. and McEwen, T. (1997). Crime Mapping and Crime Prevention. Monsey, NY: Willow Tree Press.
Williamson, D. and Goldsmith, V. (1997). Evaluation
of Software for Displaying and Analyzing Crime Patterns and Trends: Results From Five GIS
and Spatial Statistical Software Analyses of Murder Data From the Bronx, New York.
Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, NCJ 173181.
This study evaluates two GIS software packages (ArcView v3.0 and MapInfo v4.0) for displaying and analyzing crime patterns and trends, as well as three spatial statistical software packages.