spacer spacer spacer
JRSA's IBR Resource Center
Return to Main Page
Background and Status of Incident-Based Reporting and NIBRS
State Profiles
Using Incident-Based and NIBRS Data
References and Related Sites
Available Syntax and Sample Data Files
line divider
IBRRC Fact Sheet
Contribute Information
Site Map
Justice Research and Statistics Association (JRSA) Home
 
Notice of Federal Funding and Federal Disclaimer
 

Standardizing the Display of IBR Data: Relationship Variables

Additional Examples of Displaying Relationship Variables

Relationship variables have been used in various reports to demonstrate whether victims know their offenders.  Presented below are examples of tables using relationship variables.  SPSS code is presented with each table.


The first table provides a simple way of visualizing the relationship of victims to offenders in simple assault offenses.

Example 1.  Relationship of Victim to Offender in Simple Assaults
Produced by the Iowa Department of Public Safety in 1999 Iowa Uniform Crime Report, 2000.

Victims are more likely to know their offenders in simple assault incidents; acquaintances are most often assaulted.

To produce this table, relationship categories were created.  Only victims of simple assaults were selected, and a pie chart was created.  

Download SPSS syntax for Example 1.
Download SPSS Table Template.
Note: Please check that the variable names used in this syntax match the variable names in your data file.  If you need assistance, contact JRSA.


The next table looks at the relationship between victims and offenders for violent offenses occurring in schools. 

Example 2.  School Violence Victims by Victim/Offender Relationship
Produced by the South Carolina Department of Public Safety, Office of Justice Programs in School Violence in South Carolina 1996 - 1998: An Incident-Based Descriptive Analysis, 2000.

Relationship Number Percent
Family 331 2.4
Known to Victim 11,522 81.9
Romantic 175 1.2
Work 9 .1
Not Known 2,033 14.4
Total 14,070 100

As this table shows, victims were likely to have known, but not be related to, the offender.

To create this table, relationship categories were created.  Known-to-victim relationships consist of acquaintances, friends, neighbors, babysittees, children of boy/girlfriends, and persons otherwise know to the victim.

Download SPSS syntax for Example 2.
Note: Please check that the variable names used in this syntax match the variable names in your data file.  If you need assistance, contact JRSA.


The third example looks at the victims of forcible rape.

Example 3.  Forcible Rape: Victim to Offender Relationship
Produced by the Delaware Statistical Analysis Center, in Domestic Violence in Delaware 1994, 1996.

rel_rape.jpg (46065 bytes)

The table shows 32% of the rapes in Delaware in 1994 can be attributed to domestic violence.  About 22.8% of the rape suspects were related to the victim.

This table was produced by creating relationship categories for victims.  Only forcible rape offenses are selected, and a bar graph is created.

Download SPSS syntax for Example 3.
Download SPSS Table Template.
Note: Please check that the variable names used in this syntax match the variable names in your data file.  If you need assistance, contact JRSA.


The final table looks at the relationship of offender to victim in robbery offenses.   The table also shows the age of victim and race of both victim and offender.

Example 4.  Relationship of offender to victim in personal robberies reported in 3 NIBRS states, by age of victim and race of offender and victim, 1991.
Produced by Brian A. Reaves in Using NIBRS Data to Analyze Violent Crime.   Produced by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993.

                 Relationship of offender to victim                  
       Known by victim      
Number Total % Total % Family Member Nonfamily Stranger Rel Not Identified
Total 8,392 100 % 21 % 1 % 19 % 47 % 32 %
Age of victim
Under 18 1,507 100 % 22 % 1 % 21 % 36 % 42 %
18 - 29 2,754 100 23 1 22 49 28
30 or older 4,131 100 18 2 17 50 32
Race of off/victim
Black/black 3,146 100 % 35 % 2 % 33 % 45 % 20 %
White/white 815 100 27 3 24 60 13
Black/white 2,257 100 8 -- 7 68 24
White/black 93 100 17 1 16 70 13

As this table shows, almost a third of victims were unable to determine whether or not they knew the offender.  The victim knew the offender in 35% of intra-racial robberies involving blacks, a slightly higher percentage than for intra-racial robberies involving whites (27%).

In SPSS, two separate tables have to be created to produce the information provided above.  To create one table, this information will then have to be entered into this format.

Download SPSS syntax for Example 4.
Note: Please check that the variable names used in this syntax match the variable names in your data file.  If you need assistance, contact JRSA.