Location of Juvenile and Adult Property Crime Victimizations
David Finkelhor and Richard Ormrod, OJJDP
Download SPSS syntax
This example looks at the location of property and violent offenses,
comparing the percentage of offenses committed by juveniles and adults. This table
uses 1996 and 1997 data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), but can also
be derived using NIBRS data. NOTE: The location categories have been modified to
reflect NIBRS categories; "own home/residence" and "other's
home/residence" have been combined and "near own home/residence" has been
removed. To create this table, location variables were grouped into categories.
Offenses were divided into property and violent crimes, and then matched to juvenile and
adult age categories. A cross-tabulation can then be created. When using this
code, be sure to insert the path and the file name of the data file to be used, as well as
the directory and file name for saving. If you need any assistance working with the
syntax provided, please contact us.
|Preparing the File. The
unit of analysis for this research question is the victim. To provide incident-level
details, the incident-level flat file is merged with the victim segment. In order
to create the age group variable, the RECODE command groups the variable v_age into three
age group categories and creates a new variable called agegrp. Juveniles include any
victim between the ages of 10 and 17. Adults are victims age 18 or older. In
UCR, age 99 was coded as missing information; due to data quality issues, the 99 code is
not used in the adult age group. The MISSING VALUES command defines zero as missing
or not applicable for the current example. VALUE LABELS defines labels for the
GET FILE='Directory\Path\victim segment 1999.sav'.
RECODE v_age (10 thru 17 = 1)(18 thru 99 = 2)(else = 0)INTO agegrp.
MISSING VALUES agegrp(0).
VALUE LABELS agegrp
1 'Juveniles' 2 'Adults'.
|In order to create the offense group variable, the RECODE groups the most serious
violent offense variable (msvoff) into three offense categories and creates a new variable
called msvoffgp. The MISSING VALUES command defines zero as other offense and will
not be used in the current example. VALUE LABELS defines labels for the new variable
(90,100,120,130 = 1)(140,160,167,150 = 2)(else = 0)INTO msvoffgp.
VALUE LABELS msvoffgp
1 'Violent Crimes' 2 'Property Crimes' 0 'Missing/Not Applicable'.
|To display the victim age groups and offense groups with the incident location, it is
necessary to merge the victim file with the incident file. The SELECT IF command
selects out only those victim records where the victim age group is juvenile or adult and
the most serious victim offense is a person or property offense. The data are sorted
on ori and inc_num for merging with the incident file. The file is saved, keeping
only the variables necessary for the analysis. This significantly reduces the size
of the file and consequently reduces the time needed for the analysis.
(msvoffgp gt 0 and agegrp gt 0).
SORT CASES BY ori (A) inc_num (A).
SAVE OUTFILE = 'Directory\Path\Table5 victim segment.sav'/KEEP = ori inc_num msvoff v_age
GET FILE = 'Directory\Path\Table5 victim segment.sav'.
|The MATCH FILES command joins the victim file with the incident file. The DROP
subcommand eliminates variables that will not be used in the analysis.
/BY ori inc_num
/DROP inc_yr inc_mo inc_dy inc_hr rptdate aggasl arfemale arr0509 arr1017 arr1524
arr65 arr_cnt arradult arrmale asl_arr att_comp bur bur_arr clr_arr clr_excp firearm
indivl lar lar_arr msioff mur mur_arr mvt mvt_arr oasl_arr off1017 off1524 off65 off_cnt
offadult offemale offmale ofns_cnt oth_asl rap rap_arr rob rob_arr vadult vage1017
vage1524 vage65 vfemale vic_cnt vic_inj vlt18 vmale.
|To create the incident location variable, the RECODE groups the variable inc_loc into
six location categories and creates a new variable called location. VALUE LABELS
defines labels to the new variable location.
RECODE inc_loc (20 = 1)(2,3,5,7,8,9,12,17,21,23,24 = 2)(18 = 3)(22 =
4)(1,10,13,16 = 5)
(else = 6)INTO location.
VARIABLE LABELS location 'Type of Location'
VALUE LABELS location
1 'Residence' 2 'Commercial Place' 3 'Parking Facility' 4 'School'
5 'Open Area, Street, Public Transportation' 6 'Other Place'.
|Producing the Output. The TEMPORARY and the VARIABLE LABELS
commands turn off the variable labels for the TABLES command. The TABLES command
defines the tables for displaying the results. For this table the location variable
is placed in the stub of the table. Victim age group is NESTED under the offense
group variables in the table banner (columns). Column percentages were selected to
view the difference between juveniles and adults at different locations.
VARIABLE LABELS msvoffgp " agegrp ".
/FORMAT BLANK MISSING('.')
/TABLE=location + $t000001 BY msvoffgp > agegrp
CPCT( agegrp( PCT5.0 ) ":msvoffgp agegrp )
/TITLE 'Location of Juvenile' + 'and Adult Crime Victimizations'.
|The resulting table looks like this: