Data Quality Check 3

3.  Ensure that the required homicide (09A, 09B, 09C) victim segment data fields are complete.

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For incidents that involve the homicide offenses of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, negligent homicide, or justifiable homicide, are the required victim segment data fields completed and are the values valid?  The following code creates the variables necessary to perform the data quality check and creates frequency tables of the number of victim types, the number of offender numbers related to the victim, and the victim/offender relationship.  When using this code, be sure to insert the path and file name of the data file to be used. If you need any assistance working with the syntax provided, please contact us.

For the homicide offenses, the FBI requires the following victim segment data fields: type of victim, offender number to be related, relationship of victim to offender, aggravated assault/homicide circumstances, and additional justifiable homicide circumstance (for justifiable homicide offenses only).   The allowable values for these data fields are listed in the FBI's Data Collection Guidelines and are incorporated into this example.  This data check can be performed on data sets at the local or state level.  The results will show which victim segment records need to be researched and corrected before submission at the state or national level.  The narrative below explains the SPSS code used to prepare the file and to produce the lists and tables needed for quality control purposes.   The following example uses a single agency data set.  To illustrate how an agency can self-audit, one month's data from one of the NIBRS-certified localities reporting to the FBI in 1999 was modified.


Defining Homicides

The block of code below retrieves and reviews the victim segment records to identify those with a homicide offense. For the victim segment records, the first step is to create a new variable called HOMICIDE so that only records for which a homicide was recorded will be examined.  Each victim offense variable (V_OFF 1 through 10) is evaluated for homicide offenses.  If no homicide offense was recorded, then the new variable HOMICIDE is assigned a value of 0.  A value 1 is assigned for murder or nonnegligent homicide, 2 for negligent manslaughter, or 3 for justifiable homicide.  Value labels are assigned for the new variable.

GET FILE = 'Directory:\Path\Victim Segment.sav'.
COMPUTE homicide = 0.
DO REPEAT voff=v_off1 to v_off10
IF (voff = '09A') homicide = 1.
IF (voff = '09B') homicide = 2.
IF (voff = '09C') homicide = 3.
END REPEAT.
VALUE LABELS homicide 0 'Not a homicide' 1 'Murder' 2 'Manslaughter' 3 'Justifiable Homicide'/

Defining Value Labels for Required Variables

Next, the valid value labels for aggravated assault/homicide circumstances and additional justifiable homicide circumstance are assigned.  A code representing the circumstances surrounding the offense is required for all homicide offenses.  For murder and nonnegligent homicide, there are ten valid values (01 through 10) to describe the circumstances of the offense, and up to two valid values can be recorded.  For negligent manslaughter, there are five valid values (30 through 34) and for justifiable homicide, there are two valid values (20 through 21).  For the two homicide offenses, only one valid value can be recorded to describe the circumstances.   Justifiable homicide offenses also require further specification (A through G), and only one value is allowed.  In this next step, value labels are assigned to the following variables: victim aggravated assault/homicide circumstance (VCIRCUM1 and VCIRCUM2), and victim additional justifiable homicide circumstances (VJUSTHOM).  The VALUE LABELS command is continued from the last section.

vcircum1 vircum2
  '01' 'Argument'
  '02' 'Assault/Homicide on Law Enforcement Officer'
  '03' 'Drug Dealing'
  '04' 'Gangland'
  '05' 'Juvenile Gang'
  '06' 'Lover's Quarrel'
  '07' 'Mercy Killing'
  '08' 'Other felony involved'
  '09' 'Other circumstances'
  '10' 'Unknown circumstances'

  '20' 'Criminal killed by private citizen'
  '21' 'Criminal killed by police officer'

  '30' 'Child playing with weapon'
  '31' 'Gun-cleaning accident'
  '32' 'Hunting accident'
  '33' 'Other negligent weapon handling'
  '34' 'Other negligent killing'/

vjusthom
  'A' 'Criminal attacked police officer and that officer killed criminal'
  'B' 'Criminal attacked police officer and criminal killed by another officer'
  'C' 'Criminal attacked a civilian'
  'D' 'Criminal attempted flight from a crime'
  'E' 'Criminal killed in commission of a crime'
  'F' 'Criminal resisted arrest'
  'G' 'Unable to determine/not enough information'/

Next, the value labels for the variable type of victim (V_TYPE) are assigned.  The victim type in homicide offenses must be "individual".  The VALUE LABELS command is again continued from the last section.

v_type
  'I' 'Individual'
  'B' 'Business'
  'F' 'Financial Institution'
  'G' 'Government'
  'R' 'Religious Organization'
  'S' 'Society/Public'
  'O' 'Other'
  'U' 'Unknown'/

Finally, the victim segment record must show the nature of the relationship between the victim and the offender.  There should be a sequential number (OFNSEQ) assigned to each offender and the relationship of the victim-offender relationship (OVR) must be defined for each.  Up to ten offenders can be assigned a sequence number and defined by relationship to the victim.  The valid values for victim-offender relationship are assigned next.  The VALUE LABELS command is again continued from the last section.

ovr1 to ovr10
  'SE' 'Victim was Spouse'
  'CS' 'Victim was Common-law Spouse'
  'PA' 'Victim was Parent'
  'SB' 'Victim was Sibling'
  'CH' 'Victim was Child'
  'GP' 'Victim was Grandparent'
  'GC' 'Victim was Grandchild'
  'IL' 'Victim was In-law'
  'SP' 'Victim was Stepparent'
  'SC' 'Victim was Stepchild'
  'SS' 'Victim was Stepsibling'
  'OF' 'Victim was Other Family Member'
  'VO' 'Victim was Offender'
  'AQ' 'Victim was Acquaintance'
  'FR' 'Victim was Friend'
  'NE' 'Victim was Neighbor'
  'BE' 'Victim was Babysitter'
  'BG' 'Victim was Boyfriend/Girlfriend'
  'CF' 'Victim was Child of Boyfriend/Girlfriend'
  'HR' 'Victim was Homosexual Relationship'
  'XS' 'Victim was Ex-Spouse'
  'EE' 'Victim was Employee'
  'ER' 'Victim was Employer'
  'OK' 'Victim was Otherwise Known'
  'RU' 'Relationship Unknown'
  'ST' 'Victim was Stranger'.

Selecting Records for Analysis

A filter is used to select only the victim segment records with a homicide offense.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_$=(homicide gt 0).
VARIABLE LABEL filter_$ 'Homicide offense (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_$.

Generating Lists and Tables

After identifying the victim segment records with a homicide offense, frequencies are requested for the variables type of victim (V_TYPE), offender number(s) to be related (OFNSEQ1), and relationship of victim(s) to offender(s) (OVR1).  The latter two variables -- offender number(s) to be related and offender victim relationship -- must have at least one entry and can have up to ten entries.  For this quality control example, only the first variable is checked for each.

FREQUENCIES
  VARIABLES=v_type ofnseq1 ovr1.

Three tables are requested: (1) the joint distribution of values for circumstances surrounding the homicide -- first occurrence (VCIRCUM1) by type of homicide (HOMICIDE), (2) the joint distribution of circumstances surrounding the homicide -- second occurrence (VCIRCUM2) by type of homicide, and (3) the joint distribution of the values for additional justifiable homicide circumstance (VJUSTHOM) by type of homicide.

CROSSTABS
  /TABLES=vcircum1 vcircum2 vjusthom BY homicide
  /FORMAT=AVALUE TABLES
  /CELLS=COUNT.

A temporary SELECT IF is used to identify the specific victim segment records coded as murder or negligent manslaughter or justifiable homicide that do not have a victim type of "individual", have no offender sequence number, or have no aggravated assault/homicide circumstances.  The LIST command will print the values for originating agency identifier (ORI), the incident number (INC_NUM), the type of homicide (HOMICIDE), the type of victim (V_TYPE), offender sequence number (first occurrence) (OFNSEQ1), and aggravated assault/homicide circumstances (first occurrence) (VCIRCUM1).  Miscoded records can then be researched and corrected.

Similarly, a temporary SELECT IF is used to identify the victim records coded as justifiable homicide but do not have an additional justifiable homicide circumstance (VJUSTHOM) defined.  The LIST command will print the values for originating agency identifier (ORI), the incident number (INC_NUM), the type of homicide (HOMICIDE), the type of victim (V_TYPE), offender sequence number (first occurrence) (OFNSEQ1), and aggravated assault/homicide circumstances (first occurrence) (VCIRCUM1).  Miscoded records can then be researched and corrected.

TEMPORARY.
SELECT IF ((homicide = 1 or homicide = 2 or homicide = 3) AND (v_type ne 'I' or sysmis(ofnseq1) or vcircum1 = ' ')).
LIST ori inc_num homicide v_type ofnseq1 vcircum1.

Similarly, a temporary SELECT IF is used to identify the victim records coded as justifiable homicide but do not have an additional justifiable homicide circumstance (VJUSTHOM) defined.  The LIST command will print the values for originating agency identifier (ORI), the incident number (INC_NUM), the type of homicide (HOMICIDE), the type of victim (V_TYPE), offender sequence number (first occurrence) (OFNSEQ1), and additional justifiable homicide circumstances (VJUSTHOM).   Miscoded records can then be researched and corrected. 

TEMPORARY.
SELECT IF ((homicide = 3) AND (vjusthom = ' ')).
LIST ori inc_num homicide v_type ofnseq1 vjusthom.

Then, a series of temporary SELECT IFs is used to identify the victim records that show a homicide but for which the victim circumstance is not within the range of valid values for that type of homicide.  The LIST command will print the originating agency identifier (ORI), the incident number (INC_NUM), the type of homicide (HOMICIDE), the aggravated assault/homicide circumstances (VCIRCUM1), and, for the justifiable homicide offenses, the additional justifiable homicide circumstances (VJUSTHOM).  Miscoded records can then be researched and corrected.   

TEMPORARY.
SELECT IF ((homicide = 1) AND (vcircum1 >= '11')).
LIST ori inc_num homicide vcircum1.

TEMPORARY.
SELECT IF ((homicide = 2) AND (vcircum1 < '30')).
LIST ori inc_num homicide vcircum1.

TEMPORARY.
SELECT IF ((homicide = 3) AND (vcircum1 < '20' OR vcircum1 > '21')).
LIST ori inc_num homicide vcircum1.

TEMPORARY.
SELECT IF ((homicide = 3) AND (vjusthom > 'G')).
LIST ori inc_num homicide vjusthom.

Reviewing the Lists and Tables

The first table produced shows the victim types of the homicide offenses.  The victim type for homicide offenses must be "individual".  The victim type frequency distribution shows that there were 734 victim segment records with a homicide offense coded with victim type "individual".

The second table produced shows the offense sequence numbers for the homicide offenses.  An offender number must be assigned on the victim segment for each offender of a homicide offense.  According to the FBI coding convention, if no information about the offender is known, a value of zero is to be used as the offender number to be related.  In this example, only the first offender number is examined.  The frequency distribution shows that 53 records do not have a sequence number.  This suggests that not enough information was available about the offender(s) in 53 homicide incidents.

The third table produced shows the victim/offender relationship for the homicide offenses.  For each offender number, the victim-offender relationship (OVR) is required.  In this example, the first victim-offender relationship is examined.  The frequency distribution for victim-offender relationship shows two things: (1) no relationship was defined for 53 records, and (2) the other 681 records do have valid relationship values.

The internal consistency of the frequency tables confirms that there were 734 victim segment records for which a homicide was recorded as an offense.  Further, of these 734 records, there were 681 for which enough information was available to assign an offender number to be related and to further define the relationship between the victim and the offender.  There are 53 victim segment records for which the first offender number to be related is equal to zero due to a lack of information about the offender, and there are, as to be expected, 53 victim segment records for which the offender-victim relationship is not defined.

 

An aggravated assault/homicide circumstance is required for all homicide offenses and, as defined above, each homicide offense has a unique set of values that are valid for that offense.  For murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, up to two values can be entered, whereas for negligent manslaughter and justifiable homicide, only one value can be entered.

The output indicates that the aggravated assault/homicide circumstance data element (VCIRCUM1) and the additional justifiable homicide circumstance data element (VJUSTHOM) were not left blank in any of the victim segment records for homicide offenses.  The output also shows that for the records with a justifiable homicide offense, the codes fell within the acceptable range of A through G.  If missing or unacceptable values had been found, a list of the originating agency identifier and the incident number would have been produced.

However, the table below that resulted from the CROSSTABS command shows that for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter (column 1), there are two records for which an invalid circumstance (other negligent killings) was used.  For manslaughter (column 2), the table shows that there are five records for which an invalid value for circumstance (other circumstance) was used.  For justifiable homicide, all records were coded with valid values.

The temporary SELECT IFs identified the seven miscoded victim segment records that must be researched and corrected to reflect valid values for aggravated assault/homicide circumstances (VCIRCUM1).  The code "other negligent killing" (34) is not valid for murder offenses; the LIST command produces the list of these two incidents, below.  The code "other circumstances" (09) is not valid for manslaughter offenses; the LIST command produces the list of these five incidents, also below.

LIST

ORI        INC_NUM       HOMICIDE VCIRCUM1

ID0100200 JU6GBN7SQ-F3  1.00      34
UT0250600 630GIAMU72 N  1.00      34

Number of cases read: 2 Number of cases listed: 2


LIST

ORI       INC_NUM      HOMICIDE  VCIRCUM1

ID0010000 913BWOZL6X I  2.00     09
ID0010000 913BWOZL6X I  2.00     09
ID0010000 SD4A- PU728N  2.00     09
UT0250500 -Z1435BRVSCT  2.00     09
UT0290300 7C1 8BQ-F39G  2.00     09 

Number of cases read: 5 Number of cases listed: 5

Of the three homicide categories, only murder and nonnegligent manslaughter can have as many as two values for homicide circumstances.   The table below shows that (1) only murder and nonnegligent manslaughter records were coded with an additional circumstance (VCIRCUM2) and (2) the 23 murder and nonnegligent records for which an additional circumstance was coded show valid values.

Any record showing the homicide offense of justifiable homicide must further describe the circumstances of the incident by selecting one descriptor from the list of values provided by the FBI.  The table below shows that 18 justifiable homicide records were further specified and that the values are valid.