Research Question 4: What offenses are reported in juvenile multiple offender incidents in which the most serious offense is a Part I Index property crime?
Click here to download SPSS code
The following code creates the variables necessary to answer the research
question and creates a table. When using this code, be sure to insert
the path and the file name of the data file to be used, as well as the name of the file to
be saved. If you need any assistance working with the syntax provided, please contact us. NOTE:
If you ran the syntax for Research Question 1, 2, or 3 and saved the data file, you
need only run the syntax to match the segments and produce the output; the variables have
already been created.
|Defining the Variables
This first section of programming creates new variables to answer the research
question. The new variables are needed for identifying the offender composition
(single, multiple) of incidents, the age categories (adult, juvenile) of the offenders,
and the types of offenses committed.
GET FILE = 'Directory:\Path\Incident-level flat file.sav'.
COMPUTE type_inc = 0.
IF (off_cnt = 1)type_inc = 1.
IF (off_cnt gt 1)type_inc = 2.
VALUE LABELS type_inc
1 'Single Offender'
2 'Multiple Offenders'.
MISSING VALUES type_inc (0).
|This COMPUTE creates a grouping variable called INDEX from the most serious offense in
the incident variable. The most serious offense in the incident variable was derived
from the victim offense(s) in the "Creating" step when the AGGREGATE command was
executed. In the RECODE, INDEX is assigned a numeric value from 1 to 7,
corresponding to the FBI Part I Index offenses. In this example, arson is not
included as a Part I Index offense. Non-index offenses are set to value '8'.
The second RECODE groups the recoded index values into the variable MSOFFGP. The
most serious offense group values are person, property, and other. Value labels are
COMPUTE index = msioff.
RECODE index (90 = 1)(110 = 2)(120 = 3)
(130 = 4)(140 = 5)(160 thru 167 = 6)(150 = 7)
(else = 8).
VALUE LABELS index 1 'Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter'
2 'Forcible Rape' 3 'Robbery' 4 'Aggravated Assault' 5 'Burglary'
6 'Larceny' 7 'Motor Vehicle Theft' 8 'All Other Offenses'.
RECODE index (1 thru 4 = 1)(5 thru 7 =2)(else = 3)into msoffgp.
VALUE LABELS msoffgp 1 'Person Offenses' 2 'Property Offenses'
3 'Other Offenses'.
|These IF statements create a new variable to capture whether the incident was an
adult-only incident or one that included at least one juvenile. Whereas an adult
incident is composed only of adults, a juvenile incident can include one or more adults
but must have at least one juvenile offender aged 10 to 17. Variable and value
labels are assigned.
IF (offadult ge 1 and off1017 = 0)juv_off = 0.
IF (off1017 ge 1)juv_off = 1.
VARIABLE LABELS juv_off 'Incident involved a juvenile offender'.
VALUE LABELS juv_off 1 'Juvenile offender(s)' 0 'Adult offender(s)'.
|Matching the Segments
To answer this research question, the offense segment must be matched to the
incident-level flat file. This matching yields an offense level of analysis.
First, from the single segment analysis file, only the records for juvenile multiple
offender incidents are saved to a new file, multjuv.sav. This reduces the volume of
records and data to make the matching exercise more manageable.
SELECT IF (juv_off = 1 and type_inc = 2).
SAVE OUTFILE = 'Directory:\Path\multijuv.sav'.
|The MATCH FILES command matches the offense segment file (saved in "Preparing Individual File Segments
For Detailed Analysis") to the newly created multjuv.sav file. The match is
performed on the ORI + incident number. This match is one to many: one
incident to one or more offenses committed during the same incident. The matched
file is saved to mult.juv.
MATCH FILES /TABLE=*
/BY ori inc_num.
SELECT IF (juv_off = 1).
('200' = 200) ('13A' = 130) ('13B' = 171) ('13C' = 172) ('510' = 510)
('220' = 140) ('250' = 250) ('290' = 290) ('35A' = 350) ('35B' = 351)
('270' = 270) ('210' = 210) ('26A' = 260) ('26B' = 261) ('26C' = 262)
('26D' = 263) ('26E' = 264) ('39A' = 390) ('39B' = 391) ('39C' = 392)
('39D' = 393) ('09A' = 90) ('09B' = 198) ('09C' = 199) ('100' = 190)
('23A' = 160) ('23B' = 161) ('23C' = 162) ('23D' = 163) ('23E' = 164)
('23F' = 165) ('23G' = 166) ('23H' = 167) ('240' = 150) ('370' = 370)
('40A' = 400) ('40B' = 401) ('120' = 120) ('11A' = 110) ('11B' = 180)
('11C' = 181) ('11D' = 182) ('36A' = 360) ('36B' = 361) ('280' = 280)
('520' = 520)into offense.
VALUE LABELS offense
200 'Arson' 130 'Aggravated Assault' 171 'Simple Assault'
172 'Intimidation' 510 'Bribery' 140 'Burglary/Breaking and Entering'
250 'Counterfeiting/Forgery' 290 'Destruction/Damage/Vandalism of Property'
350 'Drug/Narcotics Violations' 351 'Drug Equipment Violations'
270 'Embezzlement' 210 'Extortion/Blackmail'
260 'False Pretenses/Swindle/Confidence Game'
261 'Credit Card/Automated Teller Machine Fraud' 262 'Impersonation'
263 'Welfare Fraud' 264 'Wire Fraud' 390 'Betting/Wagering'
391 'Operating/Promoting/Assisting Gambling' 392 'Gambling Equipment Violations'
393 'Sports Tampering' 90 'Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter'
198 'Negligent Manslaughter' 199 'Justifiable Homicide' 190
160 'Pocket-picking' 161 'Purse-snatching' 162 'Shoplifting'
163 'Theft From Building' 164 'Theft From Coin-Operated Machine or Device'
165 'Theft From Motor Vehicle' 166 'Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts or Accessories'
167 'All Other Larceny' 150 'Motor Vehicle Theft' 370 'Pornography/Obscene
400 'Prostitution' 401 'Assisting or Promoting Prostitution' 120 'Robbery'
110 'Forcible Rape' 180 'Forcible Sodomy' 181 'Sexual Assault With An Object'
182 'Forcible Fondling' 183 'Rape of a Male' 360 'Incest' 361 'Statutory
280 'Stolen Property Offenses' 520 'Weapon Law Violations'.
SAVE OUTFILE = 'Directory:\Path\multijuv.sav'.
|Producing the Output
The file in which the segments were matched is opened. A filter is used to select
only the property offense group. The output is defined as a frequency table in
descending order of the number of occurrences, and the table title and offense labels are
assigned for this table only.
GET FILE = 'Directory:\Path\multijuv.sav'.
COMPUTE filter_$=(msoffgp = 2).
VARIABLE LABEL filter_$ "Property Offenses (FILTER)".
VALUE LABELS filter_$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_$ (f1.0).
FILTER by filter_$.
* Table of Frequencies.
VARIABLE LABELS offense 'Offenses in Juvenile Multiple Offender Incidents
Where a Property Offense Is The Most Serious Offense'.
FREQUENCIES offense /format = dfreq.
|This output produces the following table: