Research Question 2: What violent offenses did intimate partners commit and where were the offenses committed?
Click here to download SPSS code
The following code creates the variables and matches the segments
necessary to answer the research question. When using this code, be sure to insert
the path and the file name of the data file to be used as well as to be saved (both of
which occur twice in this syntax). If you need any assistance working with the syntax
provided, please contact us.
|Defining the Variables
This example will merge the victim segment modified in the single segment example with the
original offense segment file. The intimate partner single segment file is needed
because the created variable OVRRCD is necessary in answering this research question.
From the offense segment file, the incident location will be obtained. Both
files must be sorted on the same variables first. The offense segment file is sorted
on these variables: originating agency identifier (ORI), incident number (INC_NUM), and
offense (OFFENSE). The offense segment is then re-saved under the same name.
The intimate partner file is retrieved and is sorted on ORI, INC_NUM, and most serious
victim offense (MSVOFF).
GET FILE = 'Directory:\Path\Offense segment.sav'.
SORT CASES BY ori inc_num offense.
SAVE outfile = 'Directory:\Path\Offense segment.sav'.
GET FILE = 'Directory:\Path\Intimate partner victim segment.sav'.
SORT CASES BY ori inc_num msvoff.
|To merge the two files, the sorted intimate partner victim segment file is matched
against the sorted offense segment file. The offense variable (OFFENSE) from the
offense segment file is RENAMEd most serious victim offense (MSVOFF) because it is one of
the sort variables, and the file is re-sorted on ORI, INC_NUM, and MSVOFF. The
EXECUTE command matches the files.
MATCH FILES /FILE=*
/BY ori inc_num msvoff.
|Using the resulting active file, a new intimate partner violent offense variable
(IPVOFF1 through IPVOFF10) is created from each existing victim offense variable (VOFF1
through VOFF10). The violent offenses are RECODEd into the following categories:
(1) murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide; (2) rape and sexual assault
offenses; (3) all other assaults and kidnaping/abduction; (4) robbery. Nonviolent
offenses are grouped (9) and will be excluded from this analysis. This RECODE also
reorders offense seriousness. The reordering is necessary because according to the
FBI's hierarchical offense structure, certain property offenses are classified as more
serious than some violent offenses, such as simple assault and intimidation.
DO REPEAT voff=voff1 to voff10
/ipvoff=ipvoff1 to ipvoff10.
RECODE voff (90, 198, 199 = 1)
(110, 180, 183, 181, 182 = 2)
(120 = 3)
(130, 171, 172, 190 = 4)
(else = 9)into ipvoff.
|Next, a COMPUTE creates a new intimate partner most serious violent offense variable
(IPMSVOFF). This ensures that each victim is counted only once in the analysis.
IPMSVOFF is COMPUTEd from the new variable IPVOFF. Each intimate partner
victim offense (IPVOFF1 through IPVOFF10) is evaluated and the most serious offense is
selected based upon the reordering accomplished in the above RECODE. Rape and sexual
assault offenses include: forcible rape, forcible sodomy, rape of a male, sexual assault
with an object, and forcible fondling. All assaults, kidnaping/abduction includes:
aggravated assault, simple assault, intimidation, and kidnaping/abduction.
The VARIABLE LABEL is assigned to IPMSVOFF (intimate partner most serious violent offense) and the
VALUE LABELS are assigned for the offense categories. The other, nonviolent offense
category is defined as MISSING.
COMPUTE ipmsvoff = minl1(ipvoff1 to ipvoff10).
VARIABLE LABELS ipmsvoff 'Intimate partner most serious violent offense'.
VALUE LABELS ipmsvoff ipvoff1 to ipvoff10
1 'Murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide'
2 'Rape and sexual assault offenses'
4 'All assaults, kidnaping/abduction'
9 'Other nonviolent offense'.
MISSING VALUES ipmsvoff (9).
|In the first intimate partner example, the variable IP_OVR was created to further
define the intimate partner offender-victim relationships. The file saved in the
single segment example contains the variable OVRRCD that was created to identify intimate
partner relationships as a relationship category. OVRRCD distinguished intimate
partner relationships from other categories of relationships and it is relied upon here to
create the new variable IP_OVR. IP_OVR allows a separate examination of the various
intimate partner relationships: boyfriend/girlfriend, common-law spouse, homosexual
relationship, spouse, and ex-spouse.
COMPUTE ip_ovr = ' '.
IF (ovrrcd1 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr1
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd2 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr2.
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd3 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr3.
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd4 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr4.
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd5 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr5.
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd6 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr6.
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd7 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr7.
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd8 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr8.
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd9 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr9.
IF (ip_ovr = ' ' and ovrrcd10 = 1) ip_ovr = ovr10.
VARIABLE LABELS ip_ovr 'Offender-victim relationship for intimate partners'.
VALUE LABELS ip_ovr
'CS' 'Common-law spouse'
'HR' 'Homosexual Relationship'
|The first RECODE below converts the alphanumeric offense location variable (OFF_LOC)
into a numeric incident location variable (INC_LOC). This recoding simplifies the
grouping of location types. The incident location variable is RECODEd into four
categories: residential (1), non-residential (2), outdoors (3), and other/unknown (4).
Nonresidential includes all public or private facilities other than residences.
Outdoors includes field/woods, highway/road/alley, lake/waterway, and construction
site. This creates the grouped incident location variable called LOC_GRP. The
VARIABLE LABEL is then assigned to the new variable IP_OVR and the variable's VALUE LABELS
RECODE off_loc (convert) into inc_loc.
RECODE inc_loc (20=1)
(6, 10, 13, 16 = 3)
(25, sysmis = 4)
(else = 2)into loc_grp.
VARIABLE LABELS loc_grp 'Incident location groups'.
VALUE LABELS loc_grp
|Producing the Output
The table generated shows for all
victims of an intimate partner offender-victim relationship the percentage of the most
serious violent offense reported at each incident location group.
VARIABLE LABELS ip_ovr " ipmsvoff " loc_grp ".
SAVE OUTFILE = 'Directory:\Path\Intimate Partner Victim Offense.sav'.
/FORMAT BLANK MISSING ('.')
/TABLE=ip_ovr>(STATISTICS)>ipmsvoff>(STATISTICS) BY loc_grp
count( loc_grp( F5.0 ) ")
cpct( loc_grp( PCT5.1 ) ":ip_ovr ipmsvoff ) /TITLE 'Intimate Partner'+
' Relationships Most Serious Violent Offense by Location of Incident'.
|The total number of incidents evaluated for this example is 167,158. The total
number of valid cases for this analysis is 166,668 after excluding missing data on
intimate partner most serious violent offense, intimate partner offender-victim
relationship, and offense location variables.
A majority of the most serious violent
offenses committed against intimate partners in a reported incident occurred in a
residence or home. With the exception of homosexual relationship, this is true for
all categories of intimate partner relationships and all categories of most serious
For intimate partner relationships reported as homosexual, 1,005 of the murders were
committed in a residence. However, only 3 such incidents were reported.
Non-sexual assaults were most likely to occur in a residence (81%) whereas rape and other
sexual assaults were more likely to occur in a non-residential facility (48%) than a
residence (29%). Only 1 intimate partner homosexual relationship robbery was
reported and this occurred in a non-residential facility.
For boyfriend/girlfriend relationships, 72% of the murders, 80% of the sexual assaults,
56% of the robberies, and 78% of the other assaults occurred in a home or residence.
For robberies in the relationships, the second most likely location was outdoors at
24%. For common-law spouses, 93% of the murders, 88% of the sexual assaults, 81% of
the robberies, and 84% of the other assaults occurred in a home or residence.
For spouses, 78% of the murders, 90% of the sexual assaults, 52% of the robberies, and
87% of the other assaults occurred in a home or residence. For robberies in these
relationships, the second most frequently reported location was a non-residential facility
at 30%. For ex-spouses, 93% of the murders, 82% of the sexual assaults, 54% of the
robberies, and 77% of the other assaults occurred in a home or residence. As with
spousal relationships, the second most frequently reported location for robberies by
ex-spouses was a non-residential facility (31%).