Research Question 1: Is there a difference between gender and age groups in the types of injuries sustained by victims in violent intimate partner incidents?

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The following code creates the victim segment to identify the incidents involving offender-victim intimate partner relationships and creates the variables needed to answer the research question.  When using this code, insert the paths and file names for the data files to be used.  Names must be given to the two files that are saved.  If you need any assistance working with the syntax provided, please contact us.

The assumptions for the following example are:

  1. The data file was created as described in "Reading A Multi-Level Data File Into SPSS";
  2. An aggregated flat file was created as described in "Creating An Incident-Level Aggregated Flat File"; and
  3. The individual data segments were saved in separate files as described in "Preparing Individual File Segments For Detailed Analysis."

 

Defining the Variables

This research question requires the use of the victim segment only. After retrieving the victim segment file, the first step is to identify the incidents in which the offender-victim relationship is an intimate partner relationship.  The FBI requires the coding of the offender-victim relationship for a Crime Against Person or a Robbery.  Since there can be up to 10 offenders identified, there can be up to 10 relationships coded.

For each of the 10 offender-victim relationship variables on each victim segment record, the alpha values of this variable are grouped by type of relationship.  The groups are RECODEd with numeric values for a new variable called OVRRCD. The intimate partner relationships of spouse, common-law spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, ex-spouse, and homosexual relationship are assigned a value of 1.  Relationships within the family but not intimate partner are assigned a value of 2; outside the family but known to the victim are assigned a value of 3; stranger is assigned a value of 4; victim was offender is assigned a value of 5; relationship not known is assigned a value of 6; and if no value is coded, a value of -1 is assigned.

GET FILE = 'Directory:\Path\Victim segment.sav'.
DO REPEAT ovr = ovr1 to ovr10/
   ovrrcd = ovrrcd1 to ovrrcd10.
RECODE
   ovr ('SE','CS','BG','XS','HR' = 1)
   ('PA','SB','CH','GP','GC','IL','SP','SC','SS','OF' = 2)
   ('AQ','FR','NE','BE','CF','EE','ER','OK' = 3)
   ('ST' = 4) ('VO' = 5) ('RU' = 6) (' '=-1)INTO ovrrcd.

The IF statement creates the new variable called INTMPART to identify the intimate partner relationships or those for which the new variable OVRRCD has a value of 1.

IF (ovrrcd = 1)intmpart = 1.
END REPEAT.

As noted above, certain victim offenses are not required to have an offender-victim relationship.  The FBI guidelines require offender-victim relationship to be reported for 14 offenses.  The following DO IF / RECODE uses the most serious victim offense variable (MSVOFF) to evaluate each newly defined variable OVRRCD (1 through 10).  A value of 9 is assigned to represent "not applicable" to distinguish cases for which an offender-victim relationship is not required from those that should have been coded but are simply missing (-1).   So, if the most serious victim offense was not a Crime Against Person or a Robbery, then the offender-victim relationship value is 9 or "not applicable".  MISSING VALUES are then defined as both -1 and 9.  VALUE LABELS are assigned to OVRRCD1 through OVRRCD10, and new variable labels are assigned to the new variable INTMPART.  (The most serious victim offense variable was defined and saved in the victim segment in Creating An Incident-Level Aggregated Flat File.)

DO IF ((msvoff gt 130 and msvoff lt 171) or msvoff gt 199).
RECODE ovrrcd1 to ovrrcd10 (-1=9).
END IF.
MISSING VALUES ovrrcd1 to ovrrcd10 (-1,9).
VALUE LABELS ovrrcd1 to ovrrcd10
   1 'Intimate Partner'
   2 'Other Family Member'
   3 'Other Known'
   4 'Stranger'
   5 'Victim is Offender'
   6 'Relationship Unknown'
   -1 'Missing Relationship Information'
   9 'Not Applicable'.
VARIABLE LABELS intmpart 'Intimate Partner Relationship'.

The TEMPORARY / SELECT IF selects the cases where any of the offender-victim relationships (OVRRCD1 through OVRRCD10) was an intimate partner relationship.  The SAVE command saves the data in a new file.

TEMPORARY.
SELECT IF (intmpart = 1).
SAVE OUTFILE = 'Directory:\Path\Intimate partner1 file.sav'.

This block of code creates a numeric victim gender variable (V_GENDER) and a victim age group variable (AGEGRP).  The MISSING VALUES, VALUE LABELS, and VARIABLE LABELS are assigned for the new variables.

GET FILE = 'Directory:\Path\Intimate partner1 file.sav'.
RECODE vic_sex ('M' = 2)('F' = 1)(else = 0)into v_gender.
VALUE LABELS v_gender 1 'Female' 2 'Male' 0 'Unknown/missing'.
MISSING VALUES v_gender (0).
VARIABLE LABELS v_gender 'Victim Gender'.
RECODE v_age (.1 thru 17 = 1)  (18 thru 24 = 2)  (25 thru 34 = 3)  (35 thru 44 = 4)
   (45 thru 54 = 5)  (55 thru 64 = 6)  (65 thru 95 = 7)into agegrp.
VALUE LABELS agegrp
   1 'Under age 18'  2 '18 thru 24'  3 '25 thru 34'  4 '35 thru 44'  5 '45 thru 54'
   6 '55 thru 64'  7 'Age 65 or older'.
VARIABLE LABELS agegrp 'Victim Age Group'.

This DO REPEAT / RECODE creates a set of victim injury variables INJ1RCD to INJ5RCD, whereby the original alpha values of the V_INJ1 to V_INJ5 variables are reclassified into numeric values.  This RECODE creates three categories of injury: physical injury, apparent minor injury, and no injury. For example, a victim case with V_INJ1 = U (unconscious) and V_INJ2 = T (loss of teeth) will be recoded as INJ1RCD = 2 and INJ2RCD = 2. A blank is defined as system missing.

DO REPEAT vic_inj = v_inj1 to v_inj5/
   rcd = inj1rcd inj2rcd inj3rcd inj4rcd inj5rcd.
RECODE vic_inj ('B','I','L','O','T','U' = 2)
   ('M'=3)('N'=4)(' '=sysmis)('9'=9)into rcd.
END REPEAT.

The DO REPEAT / RECODE evaluates the most serious victim offenses (MSVOFF) for which a victim injury is required to be coded and assigns a value of 9 or "not applicable" to the new victim injury variables (INJ1RCD through INJ5RCD) if victim injury reporting was not required.  The FBI guidelines require victim injury reporting for 9 offenses, including extortion/blackmail.

DO IF ((msvoff gt 130 and msvoff lt 171) or msvoff gt 199 or msvoff = 210).
RECODE inj1rcd to inj5rcd (sysmis,9 = 9).
END IF.
VALUE LABELS inj1rcd to inj5rcd
   2 'Physical injury'  3 'Apparent minor injury'  4 'No injury'  9 'Not applicable'.
MISSING VALUES inj1rcd to inj5rcd (9).

To count each unique victim record only once in this analysis, the most serious victim injury variable (MSVINJ) is created with the COMPUTE and MSVINJ is assigned a value of 1 to 4, where 1 represents the most serious level of injury.

To include death as an injury, the cases where the most serious offense (MSVOFF) is reported as murder or nonnegligent manslaughter (90), negligent homicide (198), or justifiable homicide (199) are identified by the IF statement and the value of 1 is assigned to variable MSVINJ. The FBI guidelines do not require victim injury reporting for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, negligent homicide, justifiable homicide, incest, or forcible fondling.

VALUE LABELS are assigned for MSVINJ and the VARIABLE LABEL for MSVINJ is defined.

COMPUTE msvinj = min.1(inj1rcd to inj5rcd).
IF (msvoff = 90 or msvoff = 198 or msvoff = 199)msvinj = 1.
VALUE LABELS msvinj 1 'Death'  2 'Serious physical injury'
   3 'Apparent minor injury'  4 'No injury'  9 'Not applicable'.
VARIABLE LABELS msvinj 'Most Serious Victim Injury'.

Producing the Output

To answer the research question, a cross-tabulation table showing the victim age group (AGEGRP) by most serious victim injury (MSVINJ) by victim gender (V_GENDER) is generated. Values are presented in ascending order with row percentages.  The file is saved with a new name and will be used in the Intimate Partner Multiple Segment Analysis research question.

CROSSTABS
   /TABLES=agegrp BY msvinj BY v_gender
   /FORMAT= AVALUE TABLES
   /CELLS= row.
SAVE OUTFILE = 'Directory:\Path\Intimate partner victim file.sav'.

The total number of valid cases for this analysis is 147,152 after excluding missing data on gender, age, and types of injury variables. For both genders, a similar overall pattern for all age groups is that the type of most serious victim injury reported was, in order of decreasing frequency, apparent minor injury, no injury, serious physical injury, and death. Apparent minor injury and no injury account for over 90 percent of the most serious victim injuries for all age groups for both genders. Female and male victims aged 65 or older were more likely than all other age groups of the same gender to die as the result of a violent intimate partner incident. Males were almost twice as likely as females to report a serious physical injury. Male victims of all age groups were more likely to sustain serious physical injury than were female victims of the same age groups. Female victims of all age groups except the youngest (under 18) and the oldest (age 65 and older) were slightly more likely to report an apparent minor injury. Female victims in the youngest and the oldest age groups were more likely than the other female age groups to report no injury sustained. Males in the youngest age group were more likely than the other male victims to report no injury.