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Annotated Bibliography

For information on mapping crime data, please see our
Bibliography of Mapping-Related Resources

The bibliography is also available sorted by Publication Year

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Addington, L. A. (2004). Effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
This study used tables to create a comparison of selected Supplemental Homicide Reporting (SHR) data and NIBRS design elements and the expected effect on NIBRS missing data. The data used to conduct this study were from the 1999 SHR and the 1999 NIBRS; the cases examined were all murders and nonnegligent manslaughters.

Akiyama, Y. (1998). Cross-tabulations and units of count with NIBRS data elements (examples and theory). Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation. If you would like a copy of this publication, please contact us.
This technical report addresses issues related to the units of count that underlie the data segment analyses that are feasible with NIBRS data. The feasibility of cross tabulating among NIBRS data elements is discussed thoroughly. Related topics presented include NIBRS counting rules and the chain of linkages between data segments and data elements. The concepts are applicable to databases with similar structures.

Akiyama, Y. (2001). UCR data quality control: Cross-sectional outlier detection, longitudinal outlier detection, proportional outlier detection. Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation.
This report describes the quality control techniques of the FBI and discusses three methods for determining data outliers.

Akiyama, Y. and Nolan, J. (1999). Methods for understanding and analyzing NIBRS data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(2), 225-238.
This article provides an overview of the NIBRS structure and methods for maneuvering within it to present and interpret correctly cross tabulations of the NIBRS data.

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Barnett, C. (2002). pdf document The measurement of white-collar crime using Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) data. Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation.
This publication uses NIBRS data to examine economic and computer crime offenses, offenders, and victims.

Barton, S. (2000). Trials and tribulations: How Austin PD became a NIBRS agency. pdf document CJIS 4(1), 6-7.
Ms. Barton describes the certification process of the Austin Police Department.

Bibel, D. (2000). Statewide crime analysis and mapping: An on-going project. Crime Mapping News, 2(3), 1-4.
This paper describes Massachusetts' regional crime fighting system called SCAMP (Statewide Crime Analysis and Mapping Program), which enables local police agencies to not only analyze crime within their own jurisdictions, but also examine patterns of crime in the surrounding areas.

Block, R. (1993). Organizing a dataset to support analysis of multiple units: Victim, incident and offender risk. Pp. 209-212 in Questions and Answers in Lethal and Non-Lethal Violence: Proceedings of the Second Annual Workshop of the Homicide Research Working Group. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
This paper discusses the importance of a dataset design that allows various types of risks to be accurately measured. The appropriate method of defining these risk categories is offered along with examples of calculating the appropriate rates.

Brensilber, D., Krasco, K., Phillips, S., Bergin, P. and Bibel, D. (2000). Juvenile crime in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Statistical Analysis Center, Massachusetts Executive Office of Public Safety Programs.
This report explores the characteristics of Massachusetts' juvenile population, juveniles in the justice system, juvenile arrests, and data reported by law enforcement to NIBRS.

Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1997). Implementing the National Incident-Based Reporting System: A project status report. NCJ 165581. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
This publication presents the recommendations developed during a project directed jointly by BJS and the FBI to identify 1) significant impediments to participation in the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) by large local law enforcement agencies nationwide and 2) promising and cost-effective approaches to encourage wider adoption of NIBRS.

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Campbell, A., Muncer, S., and Bibel, D. (1998). Female-Female Criminal Assault: An Evolutionary Perspective. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(4), 413-428.
This study used a Massachusetts IBR data to test three explanations of female-female aggression drawn from feminist evolutionary positions.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. (2001). Feasibility Study on Crime Comparisons Between Canada and the United States. Author: Ottawa, Ontario.
Researchers, policymakers, and the media, among others are all interested in making cross-national crime statistics comparisons, particularly between the United States and Canada. The problem with such cross-national comparisons lies in the data itself. Varying police policies and procedures, coupled with differing definitions of crimes, makes comparing statistics difficult. The problem is compounded by the fact that not only do the two countries have differing procedures and definitions of crimes, but differences can also be found within the countries, making even nationwide comparisons problematic. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of making such cross-national comparisons in the case of the United States and Canada. Examinations were conducted of differences and similarities in the American Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey and the Canadian Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, as well as between the American National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the Canadian Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2).

Chilton, R. (2004). Regional Variations in Lethal and Nonlethal Assaults. Homicide Studies, 8(1), 40-56.
This analysis attempts to assess the scope and pattern of regional differences in rates of lethal and nonlethal offenses as indicated by the National Incident-Based Reporting System data for the year 2000.

Chilton, R. (2002). What can the New Uniform Crime Reports (NIBRS) tell us about Campus Crime? Presented at the 2002 BJS/JRSA National Conference in Boston, MA.
Although limited by the absence of population estimates and the number of agencies participating, the NIBRS provides useful information on campus crime because of the number and type of offenses counted and the availability of data on offenses, victims, offenders, and arrestees. Using data from 117 campus police departments and focusing on 12 of the largest campuses, the analysis suggests that most victims of campus crime are victims of larceny or vandalism. Offenders are reported with some frequency for assault and drug offenses and most of those arrested are arrested for drug offenses.

Chilton, R. (1995). Learning To Use Incident-Based Crime Data: One Agency At A Time. Pp 305-308 in Trends, Risks, and Interventions in Lethal Violence: Proceedings of the Third Annual Spring Symposium of the Homicide Research Working Group. Washington, D.C., National Institute of Justice.
This paper discusses the development of a NIBRS-like program on a college campus to provide information on the large number of crimes known to campus police. The paper highlights the necessary differences in the analysis of incident-based and summary-based data and potential uses of the additional data provided by incident-based data.

Chilton, R. and Jarvis, J. (1999). Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) to Test Estimates of Arrestee and Offender Characteristics. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(2), 207-224.
NIBRS data is compared with two other sets of homicide data to assess the accuracy of procedures for estimating age-, sex-, and race-specific arrest counts from traditional UCR data. The simultaneous age, race, and sex characteristics of offenders provided in the NIBRS arrest and offender segments are compared with estimates of the same characteristics derived from summary UCR arrest data.

Chilton, R. and Jarvis, J. (1999). Victims and Offenders in Two Crime Statistics Programs: A Comparison of the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(2), 193-205.
Using victim information to compare National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and NIBRS results, the authors find some similarities as well as some differences in the characteristics of victims and offenders suggested by the two programs. The results suggest that when the NIBRS is fully developed, it will be an important source of information on the characteristics of both victims and offenders.

Chilton, R., Major, V. L. and Propheter, S. K. (1998). Victims and Offenders: A New UCR Supplement to Present Incident-Based Data from Participating Agencies. Presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Washington D.C.
If you would like a copy of this paper, please contact us.
This presentation discusses a supplement to Crime in the United States, using incident-based data. Such a supplement would recognize the contributions to the development of the new system being made by participating departments. The authors discuss the complexities of dealing with incident-based data.

Christ, R. (2000). In Louisiana, Personal Networking Advances NIBRS. CJIS 4(1), 17-18.
This article provides an overview of Louisiana's implementation of LIBRS.

Chu, L. D. and Kraus, J. F. (2004). Predicting Fatal Assault Among the Elderly Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System Crime Data. Homicide Studies, 8(2), 71-95.
Based on 5 years of data obtained from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this study developed a logistic model to predict survival following assault in relationship to various demographic and interpersonal factors for the elderly and the general population.

Clements, W. H., Denton, L. and Owen, J. (2000). Linking Incident-Based Crime Data and Court Records: A Pilot Study of Domestic Relationship and Driving Under the Influence Incidents. Published by the Vermont Center for Justice Research.
This report summarizes the findings from an analysis of domestic violence and driving under the influence (DUI) incidents using incident-based crime and court adjudication data in Vermont. The project was designed as a demonstration for combining incident-based law enforcement and court data.

Coyle, K., Schaaf, J., and Coldren, J., Jr. (1991). Future in Crime Analysis: Exploring Applications of Incident-Based Crime Data. Published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ-127201.
This report demonstrates how incident-based crime data can be analyzed to address specific law enforcement or criminal justice policy questions. A brief description of the NIBRS program is presented, along with a discussion of the issues encountered during the analysis of NIBRS data, and provides suggestions for potential NIBRS "services" from IBR survey respondents.

Crime Statistics Unit. (Annual). Crime in Tennessee. Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.
Tennessee's annual report, available from their Web site, uses incident-based data to describe the picture of crime in the state.

Crime Statistics Unit. (Annual). Crime on campus. Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.
Like their state report, this report reviews the crime occurring on college campuses across the state.

Crime Statistics Unit. (Annual). Hate crimes. Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.
The Tennessee Bureau of Investigation analyzes the reported bias crimes each year.

Crime Statistics Unit. (2008). Homicide study 2005 - 2007. Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.
This study analyzes 1,251 homicides across three years, including domestic homicides. Various aspects are examined, including clearance rates.

Crime Statistics Unit. (2006). Domestic violence research brief. Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.
This report looks 87,106 incidents between all domestic relationships and reviews clearance rates, victim and offender characteristics, and characteristics of the offenses themselves.

Crime Statistics Unit. (2006). Sex offense research brief. Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.
This report, similar to the Domestic Violence Research Brief, analyzes 5,918 forcible and non-forcible sex offenses reported in 2005.

Crime Statistics Unit. (2001). Domestic violence July 2000 - December 2000. Tennessee Bureau of Investigation.
This short report provides tables that describe the domestic violence incidents reported in the second half of 2000.

Criminal Justice Research Center. (1999). Crime in the commonwealth 1988-1998. Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services.
This report presents incident-based data used to describe violent, property, and drug crime, as well as victim characteristics.

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Delaware Statistical Analysis Center. (2007). Crime in Delaware 2000-2005. Office of Management and Budget.
This publication presents offense characteristics for the state.

Durham, S. (2000). Delaware's Long Road to Certification. CJIS, 4(1), 3.
This article outlines the certification process by the Delaware State Police.

Dunn, C. S. and Zelenock, T. J. (1999). NIBRS Data Available for Secondary Analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(2), 239-248.
This article describes the procedures for splitting record types and for merging files of different record types. A test comparing the time to run a simple frequency count using the full file against the merged files shows that using the merged files is considerably more efficient. Also discussed are some future developments to facilitate the analysis of NIBRS data.

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Faggiani, D. (2000). Data Systems for Policing in the 21st Century. Police Executive Research Forum Presentation.
This presentation provides an overview of PERF's Data Systems for Policing in the 21st Century project as well as the JRSA IBR Resource Center project.

Faggiani, D. and McLaughlin, C. (1999). Using National Incident Based Reporting System for Strategic Crime Analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(2), 181-191.
This paper explores the use of NIBRS in strategic crime analysis in local and regional trends in narcotics related offenses. Four localities from the 1997 Virginia NIBRS data were selected to examine the trends in the sale/distribution and possession of narcotics. NIBRS provides significantly more detail than has heretofore been available for this level of analysis.

Faggiani, D. and Owens, M. G. (1999). Robbery of Older Adults: A Descriptive Analysis Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System. Justice Research and Policy, 1(1), 97-117.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the utility of NIBRS for the analysis of crime victimization data. NIBRS data from nine states are used to develop a descriptive profile of robberies committed against older adults (age 65 or older).

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2004). Violence Among Family Members and Intimate Partners. Crime in the United States 2003, Section V, p339 - 349. Washington, DC: FBI.
This section of Crime in the US uses incident-based data to explore the nature of domestic violence.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2003). Bank Robbery in the United States. Crime in the United States 2002, Section V, p303 - 313. Washington, DC: FBI.
This section of Crime in the US uses incident-based data to look at the characteristics of bank robberies.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2002). Handbook for Acquiring A Records Management System (RMS) That is Compatible with the National Incident-Based Reporting System. Washington, DC: FBI.
This manual is designed to assist law enforcement for updating RMS systems to collect incident-based data. Information on vendors, lessons learned, and cost models is available.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2001). Analysis of Motor Vehicle Theft Using Survival Model. Crime in the United States 2000, Section V, p283 - 289. Washington, DC: FBI.
This short report demonstrates how NIBRS can be used to look at a specific issue. In this case, motor vehicle theft is analyzed in depth, including time and date of the theft and recovery.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Structure of Family Violence: An Analysis of Selected Incidents. Washington, DC: FBI.
This report was prepared to demonstrate a potential utility of the NIBRS data by focusing on family violence.

Fetzer, M. (2009).Domestic violence victimizations in IBR jurisdictions of New York State, 2007. Office of Justice Research & Performance, Division of Criminal Justice Services.
Using data from only the agencies reporting incident-based data, this report provides a comprehensive overview of the characteristics of domestic and intimate partner violence in the state. The authors find that 62% of domestic incidents are between intimates, usually between a boyfriend and girlfriend.

Finkelhor, D. and Ormrod, R. (2004). Prostitution of Juveniles: Patterns from NIBRS. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 203946.
This OJJDP Bulletin from the "Crimes Against Children" series uses data from the National Incident-based Reporting System to report on the prevalence and characteristics of the prostitution of juveniles through incidents known to the police in 13 States and 76 law enforcement agencies.

Finkelhor, D. and Ormrod, R. (2001). Child Abuse Reported to the Police. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 187238.
This publication describes the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and its
role in depicting police experience with child abuse, and reports key findings derived from NIBRS data. Child abuse is commonly regarded as a child welfare problem, and a considerable amount of information has been amassed from this perspective. When a child is assaulted, however, it is not only a child welfare problem, it is a crime, and yet there is a lack of law enforcement data available for researchers to analyze. Use of NIBRS, which collects detailed data about crime and its victims, should help fill this gap. This OJJDP Crimes Against Children Series Bulletin also offers an informative comparison of NIBRS and child welfare system data and discusses the policy implications arising from NIBRS data.

Finkelhor, D. and Ormrod, R. (2001). Crimes against children by babysitters. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 189102.
This Bulletin presents information on the frequency and nature of crimes committed against children by babysitters. The authors examine victim and offender characteristics, including gender, age, type of injury, and victim-offender relationship. The Bulletin also presents an overview of how NIBRS works to collect a wide range of criminal information for a variety of offenses. The Bulletin concludes by examining the implications of NIBRS data, particularly in regard to the severity of threat posed to children by babysitters.

Finkelhor, D. and Ormrod, R. (2000). Characteristics of crimes against juveniles. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 179034.
This Bulletin reviews data from the 1997 NIBRS data file to collect information about crimes committed against persons under 12 years of age. The authors found that while juveniles made up 26 % of the population in the 12 states participating in NIBRS in 1997, they accounted for only 12 % of the reported crime victims. At the same time, 71% of all sex crime victims and 38% of all kidnapping victims reported to NIBRS were juveniles.

Finkelhor, D. and Ormrod, R. (2000). Juvenile victims of property crimes. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 184740.
This Bulletin examines data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) to investigate juvenile victims. Part of the Crimes Against Children series, this OJJDP Bulletin analyses 1997 NIBRS data (collected from 12 States) on juvenile victims that suggests that juveniles are at a particularly high risk for victimization through property offenses. The Bulletin describes juveniles' risks for property victimization and the nature of such crimes. The authors conclude that justice demands that property crimes against juveniles be addressed.

Finkelhor, D. and Ormrod, R. (2000). Kidnaping of juveniles: Patterns From NIBRS. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 181161.
This Bulletin examines data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) on kidnapping of juveniles. Part of the Crimes Against Children series, this OJJDP Bulletin analyses 1997 NIBRS data (collected from 12 States) on kidnapping that suggests that these crimes can be categorized into three groups based on the identity of the perpetrator: family kidnapping, acquaintance kidnapping, and stranger kidnapping. The Bulletin provides statistical descriptions of these crimes as they relate to factors such as the time of day and location of the incident or the perpetrator's use of a weapon.

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Gannon, M. (2001). Feasibility Study on Crime Comparisons Between Canada and the United States. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Minister of Industry. NEW!!!
The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of making such cross-national comparisons in the case of the United States and Canada. Examinations were conducted of differences and similarities in the American Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey and the Canadian Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, as well as between the American National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the Canadian Incident-Based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR2). The assessment concluded that comparisons can be made for seven of the eight offenses, with six of these offenses requiring minor modifications for one or both countries to render them comparable.

Gouvis, C., Johnson, C., DeStefano, C.D., Solomon, A., and Waul, M. (2001). Violence in the District of Columbia: Patterns from 1999. Published by the Urban Institute Justice Policy Center.
This report uses incident-based data to describe the aggregate characteristics of violent crime and identify patterns and trends- the places, times and individuals most at risk of violence - to inform policymakers and law enforcement officials in the development of public safety strategies.

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Haas, S. M., Jarvis, J. P., Jefferis, E., and Turley, E. (2007). Gun Availability and Crime in West Virginia: An Examination of NIBRS Data.
Using incident-based data, the authors examine the relationship between the availability of firearms and violent crime. While available criminological literature concerning the relationships between guns and crime are methodologically varied and equivocal, few studies have examined the issue of the prevalence of illegal versus legal guns and their impacts on reported violent crime. Inspired by an earlier effort to examine this question (Stolzenberg & D'Alessio, 2000), this study attempts to partially replicate these findings through county-level analyses of West Virginia National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data. Moreover, additional proxy indicators are used to identify significant clusters of illegal guns and examine the relationship between illegal guns and violent crime. Particular attention is paid to the spatial distribution of the variables and the potentially confounding effect of spatial correlation of crime rates across contiguous counties. The results indicate that counties with high concentrations of illegal guns are associated with violent crime, gun crime, and juvenile gun crime. These findings partially substantiate results from previous studies.

Haddon, M. and Christenson, J. (2005). Sexual Violence in Utah. Published by the Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice.
Using incident-based data, the authors detail sexual assault, noting the impact, physical and psychological, on victims. Looking at the characteristics of forcible rape, forcible sodomy, sexual assault with an object, forcible fondling, incest, and statutory rape, the authors found that fondling is the most common form of sexual violence in Utah.

Hirschel, J. D., Buzawa, E., Pattavina, A., Faggiani, D., and Rueland, M. (2007). pdf document Explaining the prevalence, context, and consequences of dual arrest in intimate partner cases. NCJ 218355. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Hoffman, J. (2000). National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Update. Law and Order, 48(1), 31-34.
This article describes the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and participation by the States.

Hutton, S. A. and Myrent, M. (1999). Incident-Based Crime Analysis Manual. Published by the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
This manual provides information on conceiving, implementing, and evaluating measures to prevent crime. The manual is concerned with the application of crime analysis to one specific area of police work: the analysis of high volume crime at a local level. The focus of this report reflects the fact that this type of analysis is a major priority for most police departments and that there is an increasing demand for the application of crime analysis techniques that utilize data available from departmental incident reports.

Hutzel, L. (1999). School violence. Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety, Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center.
This publication uses incident-based data to compare West Virginia school violence with national statistics.

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Idaho State Police Bureau of Criminal Identification. (Annual). Crime in Idaho.
Idaho uses incident-based data to produce their annual crime report.

Idaho State Police Statistical Analysis Center. (Annual). Intimate partner violence in Idaho.
State incident-based data are used to describe intimate partner incidents, including victim and offender characteristics in this annual report.

Idaho State Police. (2003). Intimate Partner Violence: A NIBRS Analysis.
Correlating NIBRS data with Victimization Survey data, the Statistical Analysis Center of the Idaho State Police explored incidents of domestic violence.

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Jarvis, J. (1993). Homicide Research and the National Incident-Based Reporting System. Pp. 69-72 in Questions and Answers in Lethal and Non-Lethal Violence: Proceedings of the Second Annual Workshop of the Homicide Research Working Group. Washington, D.C., National Institute of Justice.
This paper provides an overview of NIBRS and stresses the importance of establishing the validity and reliability of the data. The paper also offers examples of research areas which NIBRS could be useful in exploring.

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Kifer, M. M. (2007). Drug offenses, seizures, and arrests in Idaho: 1998 - 2006. Idaho State Police Statistical Analysis Center.
Using Idaho incident-based data, this report describes the characteristics of drug offenses, including offender characteristics.

Kifer, M. M. (2005). pdf document Suspected alcohol or drug-related violent crimes: 1998-2004. Idaho State Police Statistical Analysis Center.
Incident-based data are used to look at Idaho incidents with offenders suspected of using alcohol or drugs.

Koons-Witt, B.A. and Schram, P. J. (2003). Prevalence and Nature of Violent Offending by Females. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(4), 361-374.
Using 1998 data from the NIBRS, this article examines the nature and context of violent offending by females, specifically the relationship between type of offense and type of offender group, violent offenses and offender groups, the use of weapons and offender groups, and racial composition and offender groups.

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Lester, T., Haas, S. M., and Turley, E. (2007). Official reports of domestic violence victimization in WV: 2000 - 2005.. Published by the Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Division of Criminal Justice Services, Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety.
This report uses WV IBR data to analyze domestic violence in the state.

Lucas, A. (2000). WV school violence: 1999-2000. Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety, Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center.
This publication uses incident-based data to look at 1,323 incidents that occurred on school property. The author found that assault is the most commonly reported offense, and most offenses did not include a weapon.

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Major, V. L. and Propheter, S. K. (2000). National Incident-Based Reporting System 1999. Presented by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
The FBI has designed simple, clear tables and charts to demonstrate NIBRS contents and capabilities. Seventeen tables have been gathered into this sample document.

Massachusetts Association of Crime Analysts. (2003). Classifying and Categorizing Incidents. Online Article.

Massachusetts Association of Crime Analysts. (2003). Exploring Crime Analysis Data Sources. Online Article.

Massachusetts Association of Crime Analysts. (2003). A History of Crime Analysis. Online Article.

Massachusetts Association of Crime Analysts. (2003). Identifying Crime Patterns. Online Article.

Massachusetts Association of Crime Analysts. (2003). Managing Data for Crime Analysis. Online Article.

Massachusetts Association of Crime Analysts. (2003). The Ten Commandments of Crime Analysis. Online Article.

Maxfield, M. G. (1999). The National Incident-Based Reporting System: Research and Policy Applications. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(2), 119-149.
This article presents comparisons of the tree sources of crime data, with particular emphasis on what can be learned from incident-based police data that cannot be learned from other sources. Two general categories of problems associated with NIBRS data are discussed: those evident in the design of the NIBRS and those linked to more general issues in the organizational production of data.

McCurley, C. and Snyder, H.N. (2004). Victims of Violent Juvenile Crime. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 201628.
This report presents data on victims of violent juvenile crime obtained from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) for 1997 and 1998.

McManus, R. (2000). School Violence in South Carolina 1996 - 1998: An Incident-Based Descriptive Analysis. Published by the Office of Justice Programs, SC Department of Public Safety.
The purpose of this report was to utilize incident-based reporting data to provide a descriptive analysis of the problem of school violence.

McManus, R. (2000). South Carolina Victims of Domestic Violence. Published by the Office of Justice Programs, SC Department of Public Safety.
This report provides an overview of victims of domestic violence as taken from the South Carolina Incident-Based Reporting System (SCIBRS) in 1999. These data provide information relevant to an understanding of the serious problem of domestic violence.

McManus, R. (2001). Firearm Violence in South Carolina. Published by the Office of Justice Programs, SC Department of Public Safety.
This report uses SCIBRS to provide an initial baseline of data concerning firearem violence. This baseline includes information concerning the degree to which firearm violence occurs, a limited demographic overview of those who are involved in firearm violence and some additional information concerning the general nature of firearm violence.

Mereen, R. (2007). pdf document Intimate partner violence in Idaho: Trends from 2002 through 2006. Idaho State Police Statistical Analysis Center.
Incident-based data are used to describe intimat partner incidents, including characteristics of victims and offenders.

Messner, S. F., McHugh, S., and Felson, R. B. (2004). Distinctive Characteristics of Assaults Motivated by Bias. Criminology, 42(3), 585-618.
This study examined the ways in which assaults motivated by bias are different from convention assaults.

Metropolitan Police Department, District of Columbia. (2001). A Study of Homicides in the District of Columbia. Washington, D.C.: Author.
This report uses incident-level data from VICAP to look at homicides in the Nation's Capitol. To request a copy of this report, please call (202) 272-2663.

Mitchell, D. (2002). The Crime Quotient: Should We Take a Weighted Crime Index Seriously? Connecticut State Police.
This document discusses the major limitations of the Crime Index and proposes a new way of looking at crime.

Montana Statistical Analysis Center. (Annual). Crime in Montana. Montana Board of Crime Control.
This annual report uses the state incident-based reporting system to describe the offenses, victims and offenders for incidents reported during the year.

Montana Statistical Analysis Center. (Annual). Reported hate crimes. Montana Board of Crime Control.
Montana also uses their incident-based system to produce a report on hate crimes reported throughout the year.

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National Association of Chiefs of Police. (2002). Local College and Police Team Up to Provide Crime Analysis and Mapping. The Chief of Police, XVI(2), 23-24.
Several students with criminal justice majors worked with the Gloucester City, NJ police department to examined crime data in the hopes of identifying various patterns of criminal activity.

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Ohio Office of Criminal Justice Services. (2002). Beyond . . . Beyond Bean Counting: Reporting Crime in the 21st Century.
Ohio now has nearly one-fourth of its law enforcement agencies participating in NIBRS. This document is designed to share some of the valuable lessons learned from those agencies who first implemented NIBRS for the benefit of current and future users.

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Phelan, L. and Fenske, J. (1995). Crime Analysis: Administrative Aspects. TELEMASP Bulletin, 1(10).
Based on a survey of 32 Texas police departments, this bulletin examines the administrative aspects of crime analysis. The function of the crime analysis unit is to identify, assemble, and disseminate information on crime incidents, criminal behavior and characteristics, and patterns and trends to be used in administrative, strategic, and tactical planning. The survey asked agencies about the percentage of their information that is developed for strategic, administrative, or tactical uses. Crime analysis is enhanced by conversion to the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). This bulletin concludes by answering some frequently asked questions about NIBRS.

Poe, E. and Snyder, H. N. (1995). Reliability of the FBI's NIBRS Data: Five Case Studies. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 178618.
To assess the potential of using data from the NIBRS to study non-family abductions and related child victimizations, NIBRS data were assessed with respect to the consistency of information stored at the local (incident-based reporting) and Federal levels.

Poe, E., Snyder, H. N., McCalla, M., and Messerschmidt, P. (1995). Feasibility of NIBRS for Supporting National Studies of Non-Family Abductions of Children. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 170545.
This study examined the feasibility of using NIBRS data to study nonfamily abductions (NFA's) and other child victimizations as part of the second National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children (NISMART) Police Records Study (PRS).

Pope, C. E. and Snyder, H. N. (2003). Race as a Factor in Juvenile Arrests. OJJDP Bulletin, NCJ 189180.
This bulletin examines how race affects police decisions to take juvenile offenders into custody.

Porteous, D., DeCarlo, J., Grenstiner, D. and Agosto, J. (2000). Officers Experience the NIBRS Conversion. CJIS, 4(1), 4-5.
Officers of the Connecticut State Police, the Branford, Connecticut PD, the Groton, Connecticut PD, and the Danbury, Connecticut PD outline their experiences with NIBRS.

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Rantala, R. R. and Edwards, T. J. (2000). Effects of NIBRS on Crime Statistics. Published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 178890.
This publication compares data from Federal Bureau of Investigation Summary Uniform Crime Reports and National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) for 1,131 agencies. Using data from 1991 to 1996, this study identifies which Index crime rates are most affected by NIBRS reporting and examines the extent to which rates change.

Reaves, B. A. (1993). Using NIBRS Data to Analyze Violent Crime. Published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 144785.
Based on 1991 data provided by three States for the initial reporting year of the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this BJS Technical Report compares NIBRS with the traditional FBI Uniform Crime Reports, discusses ways to make the NIBRS data file more suitable for analysis, and describes various NIBRS data elements and their reporting levels. The report includes tables based on analyses of rape and personal robbery incidents that illustrate the types of findings NIBRS data may provide as participation in the system grows. Data presented include the victim-offender relationship, type of location of the incident, type of weapon used, type of injury sustained by the victim, and sex, age, and race of offender and victim.

Rhode Island State Police. (Annual). Crime in Rhode Island.
The state uses incident-based data in their annual crime report.

Roberts, C. C. (1999). Juvenile Rape Victims in Alabama: A Statistical Analysis of Juvenile Rape: the Victims, the Offenders, and their Relationships. Published by the Statistical Analysis Center of the Alabama Criminal Justice Information Center.
This publication focuses on alarming trend of 13 - 16 year-old victims of rape. This age group represents the highest numbers for any age group, including all the adult age groups, in the state. This analysis provides a comprehensive look at the offenders who commit rapes against juveniles and their relationships to their victims.

Roberts, D. (2005). Virginia incident-based crime reporting. Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services, Criminal Justice Research Center.
The author presents an overview of incident-based data and provides an example of examining crime during and after a hurricane in the state.

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Scocas, E., Huenke Jr., C. J., O'Connell Jr., J. P. (1997). Juvenile Victims and Their Perpetrators. Published by the Delaware Statistical Analysis Center.
This report focuses on details of juvenile victims of crime using incident-based data. Not only are victimizations examined relating to the "normally studied crimes," such as homicide, sexual assault, and assault, but the study also expands into new areas such as robbery, kidnapping, theft, harassment, and social welfare victimization. This study provides first-time information relating to the demographic profile of victimized children and their perpetrators.

Snyder, H.N. (2001). Law Enforcement and Juvenile Crime. Published by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, NCJ 191031.
This report offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. NIBRS data, along with other data sources, are used to present information about juvenile crime.

Snyder, H. N. (2000). Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics. Published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 182990.
This report presents findings from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) regarding sexual assault, especially of young children. The data are based on reports from law enforcement agencies of 12 States and covers the years 1991 through 1996. The report presents sexual assault in 4 categories: forcible rape, forcible sodomy, sexual assault with an object, and forcible fondling. Findings include statistics on the incidence of sexual assault, the victims, their offenders, gender, response to these crimes, locality, time of incident, the levels of victim injury, victims' perceptions of offenders' ages, and victim-offender relationships, and other detailed characteristics.

Snyder, H. N. (1999). The Overrepresentation of Juvenile Crime Proportions in Robbery Clearance Statistics. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(2), 151-161.
Using data from the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System, the author explores the likelihood of arrests for juvenile and adult robbery offenders. The findings are presented and discussed. The differential influences of specific incident characteristics on the likelihood of arrest for juveniles and adults highlight the underlying biases of law enforcement statistics in assessing the juvenile component of crime.

Snyder, H. N. (1995). NIBRS and the Study of Juvenile Crime and Victimization. Pp. 309-315 in Trends, Risks, and Interventions in Lethal Violence: Proceedings of the Third Annual Spring Symposium of the Homicide Research Working Group. Washington, D.C., National Institute of Justice.
This paper provides a detailed description of the information captured by NIBRS. The primary focus of the paper is on the application of NIBRS data to the study of juvenile crime and victimization.

South Carolina Department of Public Safety and the University of South Carolina (1999). Juvenile and Young Adult Firearm Use in South Carolina.
The aim of this publication is to determine the extent to which firearms are involved in violent crimes committed by children and young adults; to identify key characteristics of those arrested for committing these crimes; to identify who was being victimized by these crimes; and to discover under what circumstances these crimes being committed. The report also looks at what motivates children to possess firearms, how they manage to acquire firearms, and what factors are associated with the decision to use or possess firearms.

South Dakota Criminal Statistical Analysis Center. (Annual). Crime in South Dakota. Office of Attorney General.
Although the incident-based data are converted to summary for the annual crime report, supplemental tables of incident-based characteristics are included.

Stolzenberg, L. and D'Alessio, S. J. (2004). Sex Differences in the Likelihood of Arrest. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32(5), 443-454.
Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this study investigated whether differential offending or differential selection by police explained the under representation of females in official arrest statistics.

Stolzenberg, L. and D'Alessio, S. J. (2000). Gun Availability and Violent Crime: New Evidence From the National Incident-Based Reporting System. Social Forces, 78(4), 1461-1482.
Using 4 years of county-level data drawn from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) for South Carolina and a pooled cross-sectional time-series research design, this study investigated whether gun availability is related to violent crime, gun crime, juvenile gun crime, and violent crimes committed with a knife.

Stolzenberg, L., D'Alessio, S. J., and Eitle, D. (2004). Multilevel Test of Racial Threat Theory. Criminology, 42(3), 673-698.
This study examined whether racial composition in a geographical location accounts for the relationship between an offender's race and the probability of arrest for violent crime incidents reported to police.

Strom, K. (2001). Hate Crimes Reported in NIBRS, 1997-99. Published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 186765.
This report utilizes data from the NIBRS to describe hate crimes reported to law enforcement in NIBRS-participating jurisdictions between 1997 and 1999. The report analyzes NIBRS hate crime incidents from jurisdictions in up to 17 states reporting such data to the FBI over the 3-year period, including information on the type of bias motivation, the offenses committed during these incidents, the presence and use of weapons, and the location and the time of day of these crimes. Information is also provided on the characteristics of hate crime victims, suspected hate crime offenders, and the reported relationship between victims and suspected offenders. Incident-based statistics are presented on the law enforcement response to NIBRS hate crime incidents, including clearance rates by offense and the characteristics of persons arrested for the commission of bias crimes.

Strom, K. (1998). Crime Data Requests, 1994 - 96: A Review of Requests for Crime Information from the State Law Enforcement Division of South Carolina. Published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 170028.
This report presents findings from the review of data requests made to the UCR Department of the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division (SLED) to gain an improved understanding of the types of criminal data most commonly requested and to identify standard incident-based tables that could streamline SLED's provision of information. These conclusions were developed following the analysis: 1) summary and incident-based information in the publication Crime in South Carolina satisfied an estimated one-third of requests; 2) the majority of requests could not be satisfied with published sources, thereby, requiring SLED to calculate the necessary summary or incident-based statistics; 3) about 40% of solicitations were for incident-based data.

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Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (2009). School crime study: A study of offenses, offender, arrestee, and victim data reported to the Tennessee Incident-Based Reporting System.
The purpose of this study was to present information about the characteristics of crime occurring in Tennessee schools, focusing on public and private school systems and excluding colleges/universities and technical schools. This report looks at incidents reported to law enforcement in 2006 through 2008.

Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (1998). The Tennessee Incident-Based Reporting System Data Collection Manual.
This Manual was developed for use with the NIBRS software developed for law enforcement agencies in Tennessee. The manual provides users with instructions on how to report crimes to the state IBR system.

Tennessee Bureau of Investigation. (2000). Tennessee Criminal History Database Analysis.
An analysis of 556,838 arrests in Tennessee from 1996 to 1998.

Tennessee Bureau of Investigation. (2001). Domestic Violence in Tennessee.
Using incident-based data, this report analyzes the problem of domestic violence in Tennessee.

Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (2002). Tennessee Incident-Based Reporting System Resource Guide.
This guide presents information to gain a better understanding of what is involved in the reporting and collection of of crime statistics data.

Tester, D. and Rodillo, E. (2000). Challenges to Mapping and Linking NIBRS Data In South Carolina. Published by the Department of Public Safety.
The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of using crime data maintained at the local level to do spatial analysis. The feasibility of linking local incident-based data to other data sets, using information not available at the state level, is also discussed.

Thompson, M. P., Saltzman, L. E. and Bibel, D. (1999). Applying NIBRS Data to the Study of Intimate Partner Violence: Massachusetts as a Case Study. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 15(2), 163-180.
Using data from Massachusetts, the authors illustrate three ways in which National Incident-Based Reporting System data can improve the collection of important information on intimate partner violence. The data indicated that several victim-, offender-, and incident-related variables were risk factors for injury.

Turley, E. (2000). Sexual assault victims. West Virginia Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety, Division of Criminal Justice Services, Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center.
This report uses incident-based data, UCR summary data, and National Crime Victimization Survey data to present the characteristics of sexaul crime in West Virginia.

Turley, E. and Haas, S. M. (2007). Crime in WV cities: A comparative analysis of selected population groups and victim-offender relationships. Published by the Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety, Division of Criminal Justice Services, Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center.
This is the annual crime report for the state of West Virginia, detailing the incident-level characteristics of reported crime.

Turley, E. and Haas, S. M. (2006). Patterns of violent crime and weapon use, 2000-2004. West Virginia Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety, Division of Criminal Justice Services, Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center.
In this report, the authors use incident-based data to compare West Virginia statistics on violent crime with national statistics.

Turley, E. and Hutzel, L. (2001). West Virginia Sex Offender Study. Published by the Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety, Division of Criminal Justice Services, Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center.
This report summarizes sex offenses reported to law enforcement, sex offenders in criminal justice custody or supervision, admissions to and releases from correctional facilities, registered sex offenders, and sex offender treatment providers.

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Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice (2000). Property Crime in Utah: Original Research Using Incident-Based Crime Data.
This report was prepared to assist policy makers identify the real crime problems in Utah, which will enable them to formulate a legislative strategy to address these problems. Utah leads the nation in the rate of larceny offenses, but is much lower than the rest of the nation in other crime categories.

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Vandercook, J. (2000). The Evolution of a State Program. CJIS 4(1), 16.
Ms. Vandercook of the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation describes the rapid progression of Tennessee's NIBRS Program.

Vazquez, S. P. (2004). pdf document Elderly victims of crime. Idaho State Police Statistical Analysis Center.
This study uses Idaho incident-based data to analyze the incidents of violence against the elderly.

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Walker, J. T. and Ervin-McLarty, G. (1999). Sex Offenders in Arkansas: Characteristics of Offenders and Enforcement of Sex Offender Laws. Published by the Arkansas Crime Information Center.
This publication reviews four major areas of research: general characteristics and nature of sex offenders and offenses; urban and rural differences among sex offenders; the results of a survey of all law enforcement agencies in Arkansas concerning the resources used in sex offender registration and notification; and the use of the Internet by sex offenders for information about sex offender laws and state guidelines concerning sex offenders.

Watson, W. M. (2000). Working With the Local Media: When NIBRS is the News. CJIS 4(1), 11-12.
The Director of the Riley County Police Department in Manhattan, Kansas describes their relationship with the media and presents their media packet checklist.

Weaver, G. S. , Clifford Wittekind, J. E., Huff-Corzine, L., Corzine, J., Petee, T. A., and Jarvis, J. P. (2004). Violent Encounters: A Criminal Event Analysis of Lethal and Nonlethal Outcomes. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 20(4), 348-368.
The logistic regression model used in the study measured six factors in a violent encounter: the type of weapon, the demographic characteristics of victims and offenders, the circumstances of the encounter, the reported relationship between the offender and victim, the location of the encounter, and the time of the encounter. The study used 1995-2000 data from the FBI's NIBRS. The number of sources for the NIBRS data were limited, however, with 9 States fully or partially participating in 1995 and 18 States fully or partially participating in 2000.

Whitaker, J. (2000). New York's Strategy Simplifies Switch to NIBRS. CJIS 4(1), 9-10.
The Manager of the New York State Incident-Based Reporting Program for the Office of Justice Systems Analysis, New York Division of Criminal Justice Services outlines the transition from UCR to NIBRS.

Wilhite, S. A., Knox, B. A., Huenke Jr., C. J. and O'Connell Jr., J. P. (2000). Crime at the Beach: An Analysis of Complaints, Charges, Victims, and Offenders in Rehoboth Beach and Dewey Beach, Delaware. Published by the Delaware Statistics Analysis Center.
This study provides an in-depth look at complaints and associated crimes recorded by the Rehoboth Beach and Dewey Beach police departments from 1996 through 1998.

Winesburg-Ankrom, M. (2000). Analysis of NIBRS Data. Presented at the 2000 ASUCRP National Conference, Vail, CO.
This presentation outlines the research process using SPSS to analyze incident-based data.