Community Corrections and Alternatives to Incarceration
KELLE BARRICK, An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Electronic Monitoring of Medium- and High-Risk Offenders. In the wake of multiple federal- and state-level legislative actions in 2005, the use of electronic monitoring devices for sex offenders living in the community will be increased considerably, not only for low-risk but also for moderate- and high-risk offenders as well. Indeed, improvements in the technology of electronic monitoring, combined with an increased awareness of its capabilities, all but promise an increase in its use across all state correctional agencies for a wide variety of offender types. Research has not kept pace with the rapid implementation of this new and promising penal strategy, however. This presentation reports on an ongoing project that is assessing the effectiveness of electronic monitoring in Florida for medium- and high-risk felony offenders, including sex offenders placed on a variety of types of supervision under the Department of Corrections between 2001 and 2006. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are being employed to evaluate the policies and processes related to electronic monitoring that are currently in place in Florida; the effectiveness of electronic monitoring in reducing recidivism, absconding, and technical violations; and the cost-effectiveness of using electronic surveillance as an alternative or supplement to incarceration. An overview of the research objectives, design, and methodology will be presented, and the latest findings will be discussed.
HELEN PEDIGO, A Heartland Response to Crime - Kansas SB 123 Treatment Program. This presentation explores the Kansas experience with a program that provides an alternative to incarceration for drug offenders. In 2000, Kansas faced an escalating prison population driven primarily by an increase in drug offenders entering the criminal justice system. In 2003, as a response to this increase, Kansas implemented the Alternative Sentencing Substance Abuse Treatment Program. The program provides for community supervision and mandatory substance abuse treatment for a defined target population of non-violent adult drug offenders who have been convicted of felony drug possession. The goal of the mandatory substance abuse treatment is to provide community intervention and an opportunity for treatment in order to address more effectively the revolving door of drug addicts through the state prisons, which should be reserved for serious, violent offenders. Team meetings are utilized to bring the treatment provider and the supervision agency/officer together to discuss the level of treatment needed. Treatment includes cognitive-behavioral tools, fully integrated into existing treatment offered by treatment providers, with the exception of assessments, social detoxification services, and drug abuse education. This presentation identifies program results.
BONITA WHITE, Strengthening Community Supervision in Texas. Since the FY2006-2007 biennium, state funding for community supervision in Texas has increased dramatically and resulted in a number of new initiatives, including: caseload reduction, expansion of substance abuse and mental health treatment programs, 3,500 new residential treatment beds, and the mandatory expansion of drug courts to counties with populations over 200,000. Cumulatively, probation departments receiving this new funding have the largest reductions in caseload size, reductions in felony revocations, reductions in technical revocations, and increases in early discharges.
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Creating and Using Data Sets to Study Homicide
MATTHEW T. BILESKI, Arizona Homicide Study: Creating a Statewide Homicide Dataset. Building upon the Chicago and St. Louis homicide studies, the Arizona Statistical Analysis Center (AZSAC) set out to create a statewide homicide dataset, combining Uniform Criminal Reports (UCR) Supplemental Homicide data, investigating agency data, and data from the Arizona Computerized Criminal History (ACCH) repository. The study encompasses all Arizona homicides reported in the 2004 UCR Supplemental Homicide report. Each law enforcement jurisdiction with at least one UCR homicide reported in 2004 was contacted to complete an extensive data instrument for each homicide incident. These data were then matched to the UCR Supplemental Homicide data to enhance our understanding of homicide in Arizona.
CAROLYN REBECCA BLOCK, Homicides Connected to Other Homicides. The Chicago Homicide Dataset (CHD), one of the largest and most detailed datasets on violence in the world, currently contains information on all 27,345 homicides known to the police that occurred in Chicago from 1965 to 2000. The data from 1965 to 1995 have been archived in the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. ICJIA staff are currently working to archive the newly cleaned and expanded data from 1965 to 2000, and plan to add more recent years. One of the variables that has been added to the 1965-2000 CHD identifies "connected" homicides. Types of homicide connections include not only multiple victims in the same incident, but also serial and spree murders by the same offender, offenders who later become a homicide victim, homicides committed in retaliation for another homicide with a different victim and offender, and homicides of a witness to a previous homicide. This presentation outlines the characteristics of each type of connected homicide, and discusses implications for investigation and prevention of each type. (An Examination of the Chicago Homicide Dataset, 1965-20001)
RYAN T. SHIELDS, A Comparison of the National Violent Death Reporting System and Supplementary Homicide Report: Potential Benefits of Integration. This presentation introduces researchers and practitioners to a new data source called the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), which has the potential to be linked to the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR). Using homicide data from Maryland, this presentation examines limitations of the SHR cited by past research, and how integration of the SHR with the NVDRS has potential to simultaneously enhance both the SHR and NVDRS. Although some limitations remain, it appears that the integration of the SHR with the NVDRS has potential benefits that can more accurately inform both homicide research and local policy.
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Crime, Statistics, and Data Collection in Indian Country: Methods to Improve Policy and Practice
ADA PECOS MELTON, ROLAND M. MENA, and STEVEN W. PERRY. American Indians in the United States belong to approximately 562 federally recognized tribes. About 341 federally recognized American Indian tribes are located in the lower 48 states. In 2000, American Indians and Alaska Natives accounted for 4.3 million people in the United States. About 76% of American Indians and Alaska Natives were not living on reservations or in designated tribal areas. Nationally, American Indians are two and a half times more likely to be victims of violence compared to other racial groups and the majority of the offenses are reported to be inter-racial. In contrast, in rural areas and on reservations, the majority of victimizations may be intra-racial. A comprehensive study of crime among the majority of American Indians living in urban areas and the estimated 25% residing in rural areas and on reservations and designated tribal areas is complicated by a variety of factors.
This panel's presenters will: 1) discuss current crime, statistics, and data collection issues in Indian Country; 2) review an experimental collaborative project between the state, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and 46 tribes in the Northwest; and 3) consider a culturally centered approach to criminal justice information sharing between the state and tribes in the Southwest. The implications for improved public safety program development, crime data reporting, and federal funding for collaboration will be discussed also.
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Disproportionate Minority Contact
WILLIAM FEYERHERM AND MICHAEL LEIBER, Disproportionate Minority Contact: The Iowa and Oregon Experiences. This year marks the 20th anniversary of the amendments to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 requiring states to address efforts to reduce the proportion of minority youth detained or confined in secure detention facilities, secure correctional facilities, jails, and lockups. This session will examine the progress that has been made on the national, state, and local levels to reduce minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system. Calling on their many years working with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the state of Iowa and Multnomah County, Oregon, on this issue, the presenters will highlight how data have been used to attempt to address the DMC issue, how successful these efforts have been, and what challenges remain in confronting this issue in the future.
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LISA BROIDY, Enforcing Domestic Violence Orders of Protection in New Mexico: Where and Why the System Breaks Down. This presentation reports the results of a study that compared statutory mandates and established best practices to actual police procedure and practice regarding the enforcement of domestic violence orders of protection (DVOP) in New Mexico. Focusing on four representative districts across the state, the study assessed written departmental operating procedures regarding the enforcement of DVOP, survey data from all law enforcement officers in these districts, and key informant interviews with select officers and other criminal justice system and court personnel. These data were then used to examine the degree to which policy and practice conform to established models of enforcement and statutory requirements laid out in the Family Violence Protection Act. The study found wide variation in the quality and content of departmental SOPs as well as limited literacy among officers regarding how to enforce such orders. This translates into practices that often violate the spirit of best practices and statutory mandates. However, the study also found that officers want to help victims of domestic violence and that many feel constrained by other job demands and the limited system follow-through for DVOP violations. We conclude with recommendations for improving law enforcement responses to DVOP violations, noting that such improvements cannot happen without concurrent changes from other levels within the system, particularly the criminal courts.
LYNDSAY RUFFOLO, An Examination of Family Violence Case Flow in Connecticut and the Impact of Diversionary Programs. Several state of Connecticut reports focus solely on the number of family violence arrests and include basic summaries of the offenders and victims within these arrests. However, little research has followed these cases through the court system. For example, the Crime Analysis Unit for the Department of Public Safety (DPS) estimates between one-third and one-half of all family violence arrests are considered domestic violence-related (involve a spouse, former spouse, boyfriend or girlfriend, live-in). Of these, DPS further estimates that 70% of first time arrestees do not reoffend and it is believed that 85%-95% are given a nolle or an "earned" nolle. Other than these estimates, little is known about the criminal justice processing and outcomes of domestic violence arrestees in Connecticut. This presentation provides an overview of the court's processing of family violence arrests and the impact of the Court Support Services Division diversionary programs for pretrial referrals and services for family violence arrests.
ERICA L. SMITH, Processing of Domestic Violence Cases in State Courts. This presentation examines the processing of domestic violence and non-domestic violence cases filed in May 2002 in 15 large urban counties. Comparisons are made between domestic and non-domestic offenses of sexual and aggravated assault on 11 prosecution, conviction, and sentencing outcome measures. Data are also presented regarding court-issued protection orders, guilty plea versus trial convictions, and the demographic characteristics of domestic violence defendants.
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Evidence-Based Programming in Oregon
PHILIP COX, Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Juvenile Corrections. An Oregon law passed in 2003 directs several state agencies to ensure that an increasing percentage of the funds they spend on services to reduce recidivism are based on research and are cost-effective. The Oregon Youth Authority has made dramatic changes in its treatment services to meet these statutory requirements, beginning with treatment in correctional facilities, and expanding to residential treatment programs and other community-based services. This presentation tells the story of the process and changes implemented, as well as the challenges to come.
ANYA SEKINO, Evidence Based Programming in the Context of Culture. The Oregon Commission on Children and Families (OCCF) is responsible for statewide planning, standards setting, and policy development for services to children and families. Through its policies and service systems, the State of Oregon and OCCF seek to ensure that the needs of non-minority and minority children and families are identified and met through the provision of appropriate services. The Commission has been working on integration of the evidence-based programming with the existing planning and implementation of service systems-in particular, culturally sensitive, gender-specific, and empowering systems of care for children and families. This presentation will discuss some of the questions being asked at the national level and within Oregon about how children and families of color fare in evidence-based program settings. Small rural communities with distinct cultural values based on regional history may also experience challenges in implementing evidence-based programs designed for and tested in urban settings.
In an effort to enhance its system of service delivery, the OCCF adopted four evidence-based approaches as a foundation for assessing the feasibility of relevant evidence-based perspectives:
KAREN WHEELER, Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in State Behavioral Health Systems: Oregon's Progress and Lessons Learned. This presentation is part of a panel session designed to share Oregon's experiences implementing Senate Bill 267 (ORS 182.525). The presentation will focus on how the division responsible for administering addictions and mental health services in Oregon is implementing this state law broadly through leverage and partnerships with local governmental units and provider networks. Participants will hear about specific implementation actions and lessons learned from Oregon's state behavioral health authority perspective as it relates to implementing this policy.
- Evidence-Based Programming (with Cultural Adaptation),
- Evidence-Based Practice (with emphasis on Cultural Adaptation),
- Evidence-Based Management (with emphasis on Cultural Adaptation), and
- Practice-Based Evidence.
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WILLIAM D. BALES, It is Time to Consider the Environment Where Prisoners Are Released. As a result of various punishment policies over the past 25 years, the U.S. has experienced an unprecedented growth in the number of offenders imprisoned. Commensurate with these increasing prison populations has been an ever-increasing number of ex-offenders released from prisons and returning to their communities. Research tells us that over two-thirds of those leaving prison will be rearrested and over one-half will return to prison within three years. For several decades, the research related to inmate recidivism has focused on the characteristics of individuals and whether rehabilitation programs have been effective. Recent research has begun to consider the contextual characteristics of the environment to which ex-prisoners return and whether these characteristics affect their likelihood of successful reentry into society. This presentation will discuss the findings of this research, which demonstrate that ecology is consequential for recidivism and that the conditions of place differentially impact some groups of offenders more than others. It is argued that this vein of research should be pursued more vigorously and that policy options to address the problem of prisoner reentry must address more than the characteristics of the individual offender and attend to the environment to which prisoners return if successful prison reentry is to be enhanced.
PABLO MARTINEZ, Recidivism of Juvenile Offenders The topic of juvenile offenders has been an area of discussion concerned with what to do to prevent these youth from filtering into the justice system. Once the offender is sent to a correctional institution, information on what happens with their criminal careers tends to be limited. While individuals in confinement are considered protected populations for research purposes, juveniles are even more so. Juvenile offenders who are incarcerated are doubly protected - one because they are children and two because they are incarcerated. The result is that research with juveniles is not as plentiful as with adult offenders. This presentation reports on the results of a study of two groups of juveniles who were released from a juvenile facility and followed for one year and three years. Outcome measures included rearrest, rearrest for a violent offense, and return to confinement. The results are consistent with other studies that show high levels of recidivism for juvenile offenders.
BRIAN E. OLIVER, Contextual Effects on Recidivism - An Analysis of the BJS Prisoners Released in 1994 Database. Prior research has identified both ascribed (e.g., age) and achieved (e.g., criminal record) characteristics of individuals that are associated with increased risk of recidivism. Prior research also has examined state-level characteristics related to higher levels of imprisonment, but few studies have evaluated the extent to which recidivism rates vary across states, after controlling for state-level differences in the individual characteristics that predict recidivism. Using the BJS Prisoners Released in 1994 Database, this presentation discusses a study that evaluates individual and state effects on the three-year probability of rearrest for violent, property, and drug offenders released in 1994 in 15 states. Preliminary efforts are made to specify the state-level factors associated with recidivism. The presentation concludes with a discussion of how the findings can be used to inform criminal justice practice and policy.
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Health Issues, Injury, and Death in Jails
DIANA BRAZZELL, Understanding and Addressing Sexual Violence in Local Jails. This presentation focuses on strategies for understanding and reducing sexual assault and related forms of violence in local jails. Recent national findings on the prevalence and dynamics of sexual assault in jail facilities will be reviewed. Early results from the Urban Institute's Jail Sexual Assault Prevention project will be presented, including qualitative findings on sexual assault in three jail facilities. Potential interventions designed to reduce opportunities for sexual assault and other forms of violence in these three jails will also be discussed.
LISA NAITO, Selling Your Local Political Leaders on What Works In and Out of Jails Each year local jails admit and release an estimated nine million individuals into the community. Some of these people have infectious diseases or serious chronic health issues, and many have mental health and addiction problems. Some people are on a revolving cycle from the streets to the jail and back. Collaboration between law enforcement agencies, courts, jails, health, and human service providers improves outcomes for these individuals and also reduces recidivism. Through collaboration, clear policies can be adopted by political leaders to improve data collection and sharing and to fund evidence-based practices that promote public safety. Jails are expensive and budgets are shrinking, so programs that divert non-violent mentally ill persons from jail to appropriate community treatment can be attractive to local sheriffs. Providing proper health and mental health care in the jail can prevent suicides and deaths that result in tragedy for families, jail staff, and the community, and also costly lawsuits for counties. Integrating health, mental health, and addictions treatment for persons in custody and the use of electronic medical records are cost-effective and promote better outcomes as well. Transition planning for people upon release from jail into the community presents challenges, since the average lengths of stay in jails are short and jails include diverse populations of pretrial detainees, parole and probation violators, and federal inmates. Successful reentry from jail to the community includes continuity of health and mental health care, education, employment and housing. Innovative programs in several counties that address health and mental health care for jail populations, both in custody and upon transition into the community, will be presented.
MARGARET NOONAN, Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2006. This presentation will discuss the cause of death and the specific medical conditions causing deaths in local jails nationwide during a seven-year period, 2000-2006. For the leading causes of death, mortality rates are presented by gender, age, race and Hispanic origin, and by time served in jail. Mortality rates by cause of death are presented for all jail jurisdictions in the United States according to size. Jail inmate death rates are compared with rates in the general U.S. resident population. Offense data for suicides and all other causes of deaths are presented. Data on medical treatments provided for illness deaths are presented, along with findings on the presence of medical problems at time of admission to prison. Death counts by facility size as well as mortality rates for the 50 largest jail jurisdictions in the U.S. are presented for the leading causes of deaths.
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Internet Crime: Victims and Offenders
BARBARA GLASS, Identity Theft: An Overview of Who Commits It and Why. This presentation will define identity theft and discuss why it is so profuse, who the "usual suspects" are, and describe how offenders' characteristics have evolved. The presenter will also explain general organizational patterns and give details of how such crimes are carried out.
EMILY RAINE, Victimization by Credit Card Fraud and Identity Theft in Kentucky-2008. This presentation uses the results of the 2008 Kentucky Victimization Study to explore the impact of credit card fraud and identity theft in Kentucky. Kentucky's Statistical Analysis Center administered a statewide victimization study in 2008 to explore criminal victimization experiences, fear of crime, perceptions of risk, and opinion of criminal justice agents among a sample of Kentucky residents. Using the results from this study, supplemented with additional secondary data on identity theft and Internet crime victims in Kentucky, the presenter will discuss the prevalence, predictors, and consequences of both credit card fraud and identity theft in Kentucky. The implications of these findings and directions for future research will also be discussed.
RAMONA RANTALA, Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005: National Computer Security Survey Results. This presentation will discuss the results of a study on the nature and prevalence of computer security incidents among 7,818 businesses in 2005. This is the first study to provide data on monetary loss and system downtime resulting from cyber incidents. Details on types of offenders, reporting of incidents to law enforcement, reasons for not reporting incidents, types of systems affected, and the most common security vulnerabilities are examined. In-house security is compared to outsourced security in terms of prevalence of cyber attacks. Selected industry-level findings are also presented.
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Pretrial Release Research
THOMAS H. COHEN, Pretrial Release of Felony Defendants in State Courts. The pretrial release phase of the criminal justice process has garnered a great deal of interest among scholars and policymakers. Most of this attention focuses on the initial pretrial release decision, the types of pretrial release options available in criminal courts, and the efficacy of commercial surety bondsmen in ensuring that released defendants do not engage in pretrial misconduct. This presentation presents the findings of a report produced by the Bureau of Justice Statistics in order to examine the pretrial release phase of the criminal justice process. The report used data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in the nation's 75 most populous U.S. counties in May during even-numbered years from 1990 to 2004. The report includes trends on pretrial release rates and the types of release used and compares pretrial release rates by arrest offense, demographic characteristics, and criminal history. Information on the characteristics of released and detained defendants is presented as well. The report also examines the rates of pretrial misconduct including failure to appear and rearrest by type of release, demographic characteristics, and criminal history.
MARIE VANNOSTRAND, Pretrial Risk Assessment in the Federal Court System. Luminosity, Inc., in partnership with the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of the Federal Detention Trustee (OFDT), is currently leading a research study aimed at assessing pretrial risk of federal defendants as well as identification of effective alternatives to detention pending trial. The preliminary results of the research will be presented during this session. The study examines more than half a million persons charged with criminal offenses in the federal courts who have been processed by the federal pretrial services system between 2001 and 2007. The research identifies statistically significant and policy relevant predictors of pretrial risk (failure to appear and danger to the community) of federal criminal defendants. In addition, the project is assessing, when controlling for risk, whether participation in an alternative to detention program mitigates the risk of pretrial failure. The results of the research will be used to develop tools and corresponding policies to determine the risk of pretrial failure in an objective and research-based manner while simultaneously identifying alternatives to detention effective in mitigating risk.
DOUGLAS L. YEARWOOD, Pretrial Service Programs: A Formative and Summative Evaluation. The majority of prior research on pretrial service programs emphasized the construction and validation of risk assessment instruments for the purpose of screening potential defendants for program inclusion or exclusion. Less research has assessed program impact and efficacy, with some researchers focusing on program operations alone while others measured client perceptions of, or satisfaction with, pretrial programs. This presentation reports on a study that combined formative and summative evaluation data to not only assess program operations but also to measure both the real and the perceived impact of these programs. Pretrial service program directors and members of constituent agencies were surveyed to evaluate the processes associated with program operation and to obtain their opinions regarding the impact and perceived effect of these programs. Existing administrative data were also analyzed to assess client outcomes, program costs, and the effect that these programs have on local detention facility populations. Study findings indicate that pretrial programs are viewed in a positive manner and do assist in improving the celerity with which the courts operate. Opinions voiced in the survey lend further support to the belief that these programs are beneficial for defendants; they noted that the programs are favored over traditional bail, prevent failure-to-appear incidents, offer rehabilitation, deter new offenses during the supervision period and even substantially impact future rearrest rates. Given the documented cost savings associated with these programs, their ability to significantly reduce detention populations and avert overcrowding, as well as their successful record of ensuring that defendants comply with all program requirements, four policy recommendations are offered.
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Prison Populations: Confronting Difficult Issues
LAUREN E. GLAZE, Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children: National Statistics. This presentation will focus on findings from the newly published Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) report "Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children." The findings in this report were based on the latest data collected through personal interviews with prisoners participating in the BJS 2004 "Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities." The presentation will include a discussion about the number of parents in prison and their minor children. Prevalence of parenting by selected background characteristics, including gender, race, age, offense type, and criminal history, will be presented. Employment, prior experiences of homelessness, drug and alcohol involvement and treatment, mental health problems and treatment, and physical and sexual abuse of those incarcerated parents will also be discussed. The presentation will present data regarding the relationship between incarcerated parents and their minor children, specifically, whether or not they lived with their minor children prior to admission, if they were providing financial support for their children, and the frequency and type of contact incarcerated parents had with their children since incarceration. The discussion will end with information about incarcerated parents' involvement in self-help or improvement programs since admission and their expected time left to be served in prison.
TONYA D. LINDSEY, "It'll Never Happen": Racial Integration in the California Prisons. For much of its history the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) segregated inmates upon their arrival according to race. Presently, the CDCR is implementing a housing program to racially integrate its inmates. This presentation reports on the results of a study that used logistic regression techniques to examine which inmates are significantly likely to agree or not to the proposed integrated housing by using department predictors. Contrary to inmate and officer beliefs, analyses suggest that racial/ethnic classification is not the only significant predictor of inmates' positive or negative response to integration. Instead, the results showed that inmates with safety concerns, gang members, higher level inmates, and those who have been previously incarcerated were significantly more or less likely to answer "yes" or "no" to living with someone from a different race or ethnicity.
LETTIE PRELL, Mentally Ill Inmates: A Data-Driven Response. The first concern in studying issues with regard to mentally ill offenders in prison is good data. In Iowa, this means use of psychiatric diagnoses of mental illness as documented in the Iowa Corrections Offender Network medical module. There is also a need to be assured that the data are reasonably complete, and Iowa has adopted a number of measures to ensure mentally ill offenders in prison are properly identified and diagnosed. Documentation of the prevalence of mental illness within the prison system, while important, is only the beginning. Data with which to describe the seriousness of offenders' mental illnesses are essential to planning a continuum of mental health care within the prison system. Necessarily such data must go beyond diagnosis to analysis of offender behaviors such as self-injury and the frequency of visits with mental health and medical staff. Pharmaceutical costs for the Iowa prison system increased dramatically in the first two years following improvements in the identification of mentally ill offenders. Data on the most common drugs prescribed in Iowa's prison system help document the need for medications to treat the mentally ill - as well as their costs. A few analyses have been done to assist prison administrators and the IDOC mental health director explore placement and housing issues with regard to mentally ill offenders. In addition to managing this population, institutional staff must plan for the reentry of mentally ill offenders into the community. Reentry issues include high recidivism rates among chronically mentally ill offenders compared to those who are not, and the need for research results that document what works for this population.
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Reducing Gang-Related Violence
DANIELLE ALBRIGHT, Generalizing about Gangs and Gang Crime: An Examination of Discontinuities in Data Needs and Data Availability. Results from a recent survey of law enforcement agencies, conducted on behalf of the Project Safe Neighborhoods Task Force for the District of New Mexico, call into question local law enforcement perceptions of the distribution and nature of gang crime. Most respondents view the local gang problem as serious and worsening. However, respondents were generally unable to describe the local gang population or detail the crimes attributable to gangs in their jurisdictions. Results suggest the need for the systematic collection of data on gangs and gang crime as well as improved analysis and dissemination of the information and intelligence currently being collected.
SCOTT H. DECKER, Implementation of the Comprehensive Gang Strategy. This presentation examines the JODI Comprehensive Strategy and its implementation across a number of federally funded projects. The presentation focuses specifically on the issues of problem identification and program identification. It identifies the major components of an intervention and how they can be made more successful.
KEITH O'BRIEN, The Shannon Community Safety Initiative Risk Index Formula. The Shannon Community Safety Initiative is a $13M statewide grant program in Massachusetts. Its purpose is to address gang and youth violence through regional and multi-disciplinary approaches and coordinated programs for prevention, intervention, and suppression. In order to take a data-driven approach when looking at community needs, the Research and Policy Analysis Division of the Executive Office of Public Safety and Security developed a formula that uses a combination of Uniform Crime Report (UCR), Census, and Massachusetts Department of Youth Services data. The formula helps indicate the relative magnitude of the gang and youth violence problem within the applicant communities and allows grant reviewers to more objectively evaluate communities based on need.
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Research on Sexual Assault
CAMERON CRANDALL, Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program in Albuquerque: How Quality of Service Affects Criminal Justice Outcomes. Sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs have increasingly been deployed in numerous jurisdictions to improve the quality of services to victims of sexual assault, while at the same time improving the quality of forensic evidence. Despite their widespread deployment, there is limited evidence of their effectiveness. This presentation will provide findings from a comprehensive evaluation of a SANE program in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with specific attention paid to the quality and quantity of services provided to sexual assault victims in the areas of health care and victim services. In addition, findings will be presented on the criminal justice outcomes before and after the establishment of the SANE program. Data suggest that the SANE unit greatly enhanced the quality and quantity of services provided to sexual assault victims and was associated with an increase in the number of charges filed by law enforcement and the likelihood of successful prosecution. Limitations on SANE programs will also be discussed.
MARGARITA POTEYEVA, Violence Against Native American and Alaska Native Women and the Criminal Justice System: What Is Known. This presentation reports on a study whose purpose was to provide an overview of the epidemiology of violence against American Indian Alaska Native (AIAN) women as well as an accounting of the criminal justice responses to this violence. Valid and reliable data on violence against AIAN women are essential in formulating policies likely to prevent this violence and to respond effectively. Several random sample surveys conducted at the local tribal level, as well as two national random sample surveys provide consistent and reliable evidence that violence disproportionately affects AIAN women. This presentation first provides an assessment and a critique of the prevailing approaches used to measure violence against AIAN women including the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS). We contend that future survey research efforts should be focused on understanding the causes of violence against AIAN women, not just measuring the magnitude of this violence. The second part of the presentation highlights some of the complex jurisdictional barriers that sometimes prohibit an effective criminal justice response to AIAN victims of violence. Several propositions on crafting an adequate criminal justice response to victimization of AIAN women are made. We conclude with suggestions on improving the research intended to evaluate the efficacy of programs and policies created to protect AIAN women.
RODNEY A. WAMBEAM, Findings from Wyoming's Statewide Sexual Violence Prevention Needs Assessment. In the spring of 2008, the Wyoming Survey & Analysis Center (WYSAC) began work with Wyoming's Sexual Violence Prevention Committee on a needs assessment to guide strategic planning for the prevention of sexual violence. This presentation will detail the process the needs assessment workgroup undertook to inventory all current data sources and indicators, narrow the data down to specific targets, and create recommendations for a data-driven prevention system. It will also discuss the impact this work has had on Wyoming's sexual violence prevention system and lessons learned from the process.
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Research to Improve Success in Reentry
STEPHEN HAAS, The Use of Core Correctional Practices in Offender Reentry and Inmate Preparedness for Release. Based on a study of survey responses from a sample of soon-to-be-released offenders, this presentation discusses the extent to which prerelease services are being delivered in a manner consistent with key core correctional practices (CCP) identified in research. Generally, study results indicate that services provided to inmates under the West Virginia Offender Reentry Initiative (WVORI) could benefit from greater adherence to CCP, which are rooted in staff characteristics and staff-inmate relationships that result in reductions in reoffending. Many inmates indicated that staff had not adequately helped them to develop a release plan that could work, did not view their problems realistically, and did not assist them in putting their release plans into action. While inmates perceived a high level of structure in the prison regimen, the quality of the interpersonal relationship with staff was poor. Further, on every measure of CCP and transitional services, the performance of work release centers was equal to or better than that of general-population institutions. Overall, inmates in work release centers viewed staff as working more energetically to generate referrals and work with community organizations on their behalf. These findings suggest that corrections administrators should consider expanding the use of work release centers as "step-down" units for offenders nearing release. In addition, reentry program planners should continue to focus on assisting offenders in finding stable employment upon release, and more attention should be given to staff characteristics and the techniques staff use to deliver reentry services.
MARK RUBIN, Implementing Effective Correctional Management of Offenders in the Community: A Three-Year Review of Findings from Maine. Reentry in Maine often means an offender receiving a probation sentence after a spell in prison or jail. In 2003, Maine was selected by the National Institute of Corrections as a pilot state in applying an integrated approach to the implementation of evidence-based principles (EBP) in community corrections. This presentation reviews the outcomes and performance of EBP implementation in Maine and examines the following:
In addition to recidivism rates, this presentation examines a series of intermediate outcome and process measures that can help organizations monitor their progress toward recidivism reduction.
- Characteristics of adult offenders committed to probation in Maine;
- Types, extent, and frequencies of probation recidivism, and;
- Likely correlates of probationer recidivism.
DANIELLE M. STEFFEY, Mental Illness and Reentry: Mental Health Issues Among Released Inmates. More than 700,000 individuals are paroled from U.S. prisons each year, and more than half will return to prison within three years if historical patterns continue. The Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) provided more than $100 million to 69 state agencies to develop and implement prisoner reentry programming. The National Institute of Justice funded RTI International and the Urban Institute to conduct an evaluation of SVORI that incorporates implementation assessment, impact evaluation, and economic analysis. This evaluation began in 2003 and will conclude in 2009. The impact evaluation focuses on 12 adult and 4 juvenile SVORI programs located in 14 states, and includes four waves of interviews with SVORI participants and comparable offenders who did not participate in SVORI programs. This presentation examines mental health issues among the men, women, and boys who participated in the impact evaluation of SVORI. Study participants were asked about lifetime and current clinical diagnoses and treatment by mental health providers. In addition, the SF-12 Health Survey and the SA-45 Global Severity Index were used to assess mental health, as well as symptoms of specific psychopathologies, approximately 30 days prior to release from prison and at 3, 9, and 15 months post release. Because many individuals with mental health problems also use drugs, this presentation describes pre-prison and post-release substance use among study participants with mental health problems. Finally, because one objective of SVORI was to promote the provision of services and programming targeted to individual needs, this presentation also describes levels of self-reported mental health service need and service receipt, and examines whether SVORI participants were more likely to report receiving needed mental health services prior to and after their release from prison.
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Research Using Criminal History Records
MARK MYRENT, Use of Criminal History Data to Generate Arrest Statistics. Given that the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) has not been fully implemented in many states (particularly those with major urban centers), Criminal History Record Information (CHRI) represents a viable option for Statistical Analysis Centers to generate detailed arrest trend data. Like NIBRS, CHRI can generate profiles of arrest patterns that address covariance between offender demographics and offense types. The presenter will focus particular attention on the use of CHRI data for producing analyses of weapon use in the commission of violent offenses. In addition to arrest data, the relative strengths and limitations of CHRI for statistical purposes will be discussed. For example, CHRI allows for analysis of arrest outcomes and therefore a systemwide perspective of how the justice system responds to various offenders and offenses. On the other hand, while statutory charge codes provide detail on a range of offense types wider than Uniform Crime Reporting/NIBRS, they generally cannot yield useful details on factors such as weapon use or injuries incurred from violent acts, or the specific controlled substances involved in illegal drug possession and sales. This dynamic corresponds largely to the relative inclusiveness of crime details and circumstances that fall within given statutory sections and paragraphs. Although specific offense attributes may be obtainable at the sub-paragraph levels of charge codes, CHRI reporting by police officials may only reference the more generic statute sections. Other limitations of CHRI data must also be considered, such as its systematic exclusions of many juvenile arrests, non-specificity of offender race and ethnicity variables, and police misuse of CHRI reporting for non-arrest events. Each of these issues will be discussed.
GERARD F. RAMKER, Federal Efforts to Improve the Quality of the Nation's Criminal History Records. This presentation will review the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) efforts to improve the quality of FBI and state criminal history records through the state grant programs it administers, including: the National Criminal History Improvement Program, the State Justice Statistics program, and the Stalking and Domestic Violence Records Improvement Program. New grant programs authorized under recent legislation aimed at the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) will also be reviewed. Finally, the presentation will include a description of efforts to improve the way FBI and state criminal histories are accessed by BJS to support national recidivism research.
GEORGE SHALER, Strengthening Statewide Drug Offense Analysis With Capacity-Building Strategies. The Maine Statistical Analysis Center (SAC) recently completed a project to analyze criminal history record (CHR) data on a statewide basis, with a specific focus on the characteristics of all state drug offenders in 2006. The SAC explored drug crime arrests by drug type, offense class, number of charges, arrests and offenders, sales/possession, location, arresting law enforcement agency, and disposition information. Findings from data analyses will cover such topics as drug offenders' offending history, trafficking, and arrests and dispositions by agency. Presentation formats include geographic information system (GIS) mapping of key statewide data analyses. The SAC also focused on developing capacity-building strategies to strengthen CHR data quality and on reducing barriers to effective reporting to state criminal history records system. Capacity findings include a discussion of case ID data completeness findings, development of strategies to expedite the data entry process for stakeholders, development of processes to replicate audit findings for other types of crimes, and development of an approach to present findings to county-level stakeholder agencies reporting to the criminal history record system.
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Sentencing Issues and Challenges
PAUL BELLATTY, Using Actuarial Risk Assessment at Sentencing. Evidence-based practices have been incorporated into correctional programs provided in Oregon. Evidence-based programming has been legislatively mandated for programs provided to youth and adult offenders served in the institutions and in the community. This presentation will discuss research conducted by the Oregon Criminal Justice Commission that considered four questions:
1) Predictive accuracy is related to the size of the group under consideration. If you select 5% of the lowest risk offenders, more than 90% of them will not be rearrested. If you select 25% of the lowest risk offenders, about 84% will not be rearrested. Actuarial equations can identify the lower risk inmates with known predictive accuracy. This enables legislators and policy analysts to consider alternatives to the current sentencing system knowing a certain percentage will recidivate or be rearrested.
- Can we accurately identify high risk inmates for rearrest?
- Is criminal history from the sentencing guidelines a good proxy for subsequent rearrest?
- Does the current system sentence higher risk offenders to incarceration and sentence lower risk offenders to probation?
- Are prosecutors, judges, and defense attorneys satisfied with the current grid system and are they open to changing the existing system?
2) Although criminal history is considered a good proxy for future criminal activity, some feel the current criminal history categories from the Oregon sentencing guidelines were not intended as a proxy for recidivism. Agreement between the actuarial risk assessment and the history from the sentencing guidelines is poor to moderate.
3) For offenders with similar histories being sentenced for similar offenses, the current system tends to sentence higher risk offenders to probation and lower risk offenders to jail or prison. Although the rearrest rate is higher for offenders sentenced to probation, differences between estimates for the incarcerated population and probation population are small. Use of an actuarial risk assessment tool could be used to sentence higher risk offenders to jail/prison and lower risk offenders to probation.
4) Prosecutors, defense attorneys, and judges are generally dissatisfied with the current sentence grid system used in Oregon. Despite these reservations with the existing system, all groups are skeptical of using risk assessment tool sentencing.
CHARLES HUENKE, Legislative Sentencing Tradeoffs: Conjecture in Prison Bed Impact Analysis. In 2003, Delaware passed legislation (House Bill 210) aimed at increasing penalties for certain violent offenses. To offset prison impact from the increased penalties, the legislation also reduced penalties for certain drug and motor vehicle offenses and gave the Department of Correction authority to house selected offenders in settings less restrictive than full custody. Prior to the House Bill 210's proposal, the Delaware Statistical Analysis Center provided background and scenario analyses to assist the bill's crafters in achieving the desired balance in projected increased and reduced prison bed requirements. Since the bill's passage, the Center has analyzed its impact over time. This presentation gives an overview of projections and actual changes observed since passage of this landmark legislation.
DAVID E. OLSON, The Impact of Truth-in-Sentencing on Lengths of Time to Serve and Institutional Adjustment of Murderers and Sex Offenders in Illinois. In the 1990s, Illinois was among a number of states in the country that implemented truth-in-sentencing (TIS). Since 1978, Illinois has been a determinate sentencing state, and had allowed all offenders sentenced to prison with a determinate sentence to earn a variety of good conduct credits. As a result, most offenders sentenced to prison in Illinois served between 35% and 50% of their court-imposed sentence. Illinois' TIS law, which passed in 1998, only covers the most serious violent offenses, including murder, sexual assault, and other specific violent crimes. Since the passage of Illinois' TIS law, those convicted of first degree murder must serve 100% of their court-imposed sentence and those convicted of sexual assault must serve 85% of their sentence. During the legislative debate leading up to the passage of Illinois' TIS law, policy makers and practitioners argued over whether the law would have any real impact on how long inmates served in prison. Many argued that that there would be no change whatsoever in the amount of time served in prison due to criminal justice practitioners (judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys) merely reducing sentences proportionally, thereby resulting in those sentenced to prison still serving the same time behind bars. Others believed time served would increase, producing a burdensome financial situation. There was also concern that the law would have an adverse impact on inmate behavior, particularly assaults against staff, now that the incentive of good conduct credit was gone. This presentation will summarize findings from an examination of the impact Illinois' TIS law had on sentencing practices, time to serve in prison, and the institutional behaviors (i.e., assaults, disciplinary infractions) of inmates convicted of murder and sexual assault, and will also discuss the implications of the findings for correctional policy and practice.
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State and Federal Information Sharing
CATHERINE PLUMMER, Interstate Transmission of Criminal History Records Using a National XML Standard. With the exception of a few states and the FBI, Rap Sheets are delivered in non-uniform, state-specific formats. The lack of uniformity has hindered the ability of law enforcement to protect the public, and also makes it difficult to pull together accurate crime statistics to prevent crime and reduce recidivism. This session will provide an overview of the International Justice and Public Safety Network's (Nlets) Criminal History Information Exchange Format (CHIEF) Project, funded by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which supports the implementation of standardized interstate criminal history specification, represented in Extensible Markup Language (XML). The presentation will review the technical resources and artifacts that Nlets has developed and efforts in the states to support implementation of this technology.
CARL WICKLUND, Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative. This presentation will introduce the audience to The Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global). This federal advisory committee to the U.S. Attorney General has developed a number of products and provides services that improve or enhance interagency sharing of justice information. Global has the following working groups of subject matter experts:
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- Global Infrastructure and Standards Working Group
- Global Intelligence Working Group and the Criminal Intelligence Coordinating Council
- Global Security Working Group
- Global Privacy and Information Quality Working Group
- Global Outreach Working Group
Tools for Law Enforcement
THERESA SALO, New York's CrimeStat System: Using Data to Improve Local Agency Performance. New York has a performance management system for criminal justice that monitors criminal justice performance and trends. In 2007, the system was significantly expanded to provide local police agencies, district attorneys, probation departments, and jails with tools to help them monitor performance in key areas. This presentation will describe the system that allows local agencies to monitor performance in areas such as the management of sex offenders, local DNA collections, trends in crime and firearm activity, and increases in local jail populations.
BRUCE G. TAYLOR, The Integration of Crime Analysis into Patrol Work. This presentation will explore the data and analysis needs of patrol officers and explore the most promising practices that have emerged, within a community policing (CP) context, to address those needs with a group of experienced crime analysts, patrol officers, supervisors, and executives. Our vision for this project is to study the nature of data collection and the use of crime analysis/crime mapping, in support of the full range of CP efforts. Dr. Taylor will focus the presentation on the results of a national survey of law enforcement agencies (LEAs) to assess their current use of, and need for, crime analysis/mapping and data collection for CP and its integration with patrol, including promising practices, barriers to overcome, and issues that need to be resolved. He will also discuss the study selection process for using the survey results to identify six to ten agencies that have successfully integrated crime analysis with CP patrol work to participate in a series of focus groups. The final element of this research is to provide guidance to LEAs on integrating data collection and crime analysis/mapping into regular patrol work within a CP context. For the presentation, Dr. Taylor will discuss the project plan to form working groups to assess the analysis needs of patrol officers and identify the gaps in the current system of crime analysis being used by most LEAs and suggest concrete practical solutions to address these gaps. He will also discuss the project plan to conduct case studies with two agencies to increase understanding of the entire implementation process for LEAs that have been successful at integration in this area. The final element of the project is the development of a guidebook for integrating data collection and crime analysis for CP into regular patrol work.
EDWIN ZEDLEWSKI, Using DNA Forensics to Solve Property Crimes. The National Institute of Justice launched its DNA Field Experiment in October 2005. The experiment gave five law enforcement groups (Denver, Los Angeles, Phoenix, Topeka, and Orange County, CA) resources to gather and process DNA evidence from property crime scenes. Each jurisdiction agreed to process DNA evidence from 500 scenes in a randomized control trial. In each jurisdiction, officers were trained to locate and gather DNA samples for evidence in addition to conducting more traditional investigation tasks. Of the 500 scenes that had DNA evidence collected, half of the cases - chosen at random - progressed to DNA analysis and the other half were shelved so that control group investigations proceeded using only traditional practices. The evaluation, conducted by the Urban Institute, was published in June 2008. It found that DNA forensics produced dramatic increases in key outcomes. Suspect identifications doubled over those in the control group, as did arrests and prosecutions. This presentation describes the experimental design and outcomes in greater detail, and discusses lessons learned and directions for FY 2009 continuation research projects.
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Trends in Juvenile Crime and Justice
NANCY ARRIGONA, The Changing Face of Juvenile Probation in Texas. For more than a decade, juvenile arrests and referrals to the juvenile probation system in Texas have declined. This has occurred in spite of increases in the juvenile-age population. Lower arrest and referral numbers have allowed the state to apply ever more punitive policies for placing juveniles under supervision and have resulted in steady increases in the number of juveniles under supervision. As a new decade approaches, Texas must prepare for changing arrest and referral trends that will greatly impact the ability of probation departments to provide services to juveniles under their jurisdiction. The U.S. Census Bureau has projected increases in the juvenile-age population in Texas driven primarily by increases in the number of Hispanic youth in the population. By 2018, the juvenile-age population in Texas will be majority Hispanic. These youth have historically had high arrest and referral rates and are much more likely to have dropped out of school and to be living in poverty. The projected result is an increase in referrals, with juveniles coming to the system with high levels of need and at high risk of reoffense. This presentation will provide information about projected changes in juvenile population trends, how these trends will impact juvenile probation referrals, and the challenges probation departments will face in providing services to meet the needs of the juveniles in the system.
DAVID M. KOCH, Evaluating Juvenile Crime Trends and Recidivism in Multnomah County. This presentation will describe county crime trends over time in relation to state and national trends, discuss possible explanations for reduced crime, and examine the relationship between juvenile crime and recidivism in the context of system reform efforts.
JOHN P. O'CONNELL, Juvenile Amenability: Policy and Processes. A key nexus between the juvenile and adult courts are the policies and procedures affecting those youth who are tried as adults in Superior Court. This presentation examines the types of youth that have their cases filed in Superior Court as adults and the effects that recent law changes and criminal justice system processes have had on their stay in detention awaiting trial or a reverse remand back to family court. Recently up to 50% of the juvenile detention beds have been used to house youth awaiting hearings in adult court. What role did change in policy play? What role did case processing play?
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Understanding Gun Violence
RONALD J. FRANDSEN, Enforcement of the Brady Act, 2006. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Act) requires criminal history background checks by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and state agencies on persons who attempt to purchase a firearm from a licensed dealer. In 2006, the FBI alone denied a firearm to nearly 70,000 persons due to National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) records of felonies, domestic violence offenses, and other prohibiting factors. The FBI reports denied persons to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF), which screens and investigates the cases, and retrieves firearms that were obtained illegally. ATF collaborates with U.S. Attorneys to decide which cases merit prosecution. The Regional Justice Information Service analyzed ATF investigative records of NICS denial cases that began in 2006. This presentation will highlight statistics on ATF investigative priorities, firearm retrievals, and the results of cases referred for prosecution. Policy and practice questions raised by the statistics will be discussed.
STEPHEN HAAS, Gun Availability and Crime in West Virginia: An Examination of NIBRS Data. The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data afford unique opportunities to inform crime analytic efforts. Recent reports on the relationship between the availability of firearms and violent crime constitute one such effort. While available criminological literature concerning the relationships between guns and crime are methodologically varied and equivocal, few studies have examined the issue of the prevalence of illegal versus legal guns and their impacts on reported violent crime. This presentation reports on a study that used county-level analyses of West Virginia NIBRS data in an attempt to replicate the findings of an earlier effort by Stolzenberg and D'Alessio in 2000 that examined this question. Additional proxy indicators were used to identify significant clusters of illegal guns and examine the relationship between illegal guns and violent crime. Particular attention was paid to the spatial distribution of the variables and the potentially confounding effect of spatial correlation of crime rates across contiguous counties. The study's results indicate that counties with high concentrations of both legal and illegal guns are associated with violent crime, gun crime, and knife crime. These findings partially substantiate results from previous studies.
TAMMY MEREDITH, Gun Arrest Patterns in Georgia. Over nine million computerized criminal history records are mined to define the patterns of gun arrests in Georgia during the past 20 years. Dr. Meredith examines all charges at each arrest episode for 2.5 million arrestees to determine the volume and proportion of arrest episodes that include a gun charge. Key areas of interest include the types of crimes likely to accompany a gun crime, the urban/rural distribution of gun arrests, changes in the male/female distribution of gun arrests, and patterns of gun crimes among convicted felons. In an effort to reduce gun crime, state and federal jurisdictions allow for enhanced gun penalties. Thus special attention will be paid to the conviction patterns among offenders arrested for multiple gun crimes.
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Using Data to Understand Drug Abuse
DANA E. HUNT, Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM II): 2007 Results and Trends. The ADAM program, originally funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), collected interview and bioassay data from a probability-based sample of arrestees in 35 counties from 2000-2003. When NIJ terminated the program in 2003, the Office of National Drug Control Policy decided to revive the collection in 10 counties, starting in April 2007. Data include information on the drug use, arrest history, treatment experience, and drug market participation of arrestees collected in interviews in booking facilities within 48 hours of arrest, as well as analysis of a urine sample for presence of nine drugs. The revived ADAM II program also has a special focus on the potential spread of methamphetamine since 2003.
MICHELLE NEITCH, Prescription Drug Misuse Among Arizona's Youth. Prescription drugs are becoming the drug of choice among many teens across the nation. In 2006, more Arizona youth self-reported using prescription drugs, without a doctor's prescription, than any other illicit substance except for marijuana. This held true for both lifetime use and use in the 30 days prior to taking the survey. This presentation will examine data from the 2006 and 2008 Arizona Youth Survey (AYS) administrations. The AYS is administered every two years to a sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students attending public and charter schools throughout Arizona. The presentation will discuss the current levels of prescription drug abuse as well as differences between those youth who report using prescription drugs and those who have not used prescription drugs.
JANEENA WING, Using NIBRS to Understand Drug Trends. All police jurisdictions with the exception of tribal police within the state of Idaho report NIBRS to the Idaho State Police repository. The Idaho Statistical Analysis Center draws from this repository to analyze crime trends for the state. But what technicalities, hindrances, and reliability questions result when analyzing NIBRS data? This presentation will go over drug trends that can and cannot be determined from NIBRS data and the alternatives that are available in understanding drug issues.
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